Laws of Toleration Are Also Laws of Divine Providence



234. There are no laws of toleration per se or apart from the laws of divine providence; rather they are the same. Hence to say that God permits something does not mean that he wills it, but that he cannot avert it in view of the end, which is salvation. Whatever is done for the sake of that end is in accord with the laws of divine providence. For divine providence, as was said, constantly travels in a different direction from that of man’s will and against his will, always intent on its objective.


At each moment of its activity or at each step in its progress, as it perceives man straying from that end, it directs, turns, and disposes him according to its laws, leading him away from evil and to good. It will be seen in what follows that this cannot be done without the tolerance of evil. Furthermore, nothing can be permitted for no cause, and the cause can only be in some law of divine providence, explaining why it is permitted.


235. One who does not acknowledge divine providence at all does not acknowledge God at heart, but nature instead of God, and human prudence instead of divine providence. This does not appear to be so because man can think and speak in two ways. He can think and speak in one way from his inner self and in another from his outer self. This capability is like a hinge that lets a door swing either way, in one direction as one enters, in the other as one leaves; or like a sail which can take a ship one way or the other as the skipper spreads it. Those who have confirmed themselves in favor of human prudence to the denial of divine providence see nothing else as long as they are in this way of thinking, no matter what they see, hear, or read, nor can they, for they accept nothing from heaven but only from themselves. As they draw their conclusions from appearances and fallacies alone and see nothing else, they can swear that prudence is all. If they also recognize nature only, they become enraged at defenders of divine providence, except that they think when these are priests they are simply pursuing their teaching and office.


236. We will enumerate now some things that are tolerated and yet are in accord with laws of divine providence, by which, however, the merely natural man confirms himself in favor of nature and against God and in favor of human prudence and against divine providence. For instance he reads in the Word that:


1. Adam, wisest of men, and his wife allowed themselves to be led astray by the serpent, and God did not avert this in his divine providence.


2. Their first son, Cain, killed his brother Abel, and God did not speak to him and dissuade him but only afterwards cursed him.


3. The Israelites worshipped a golden calf in the wilderness and acknowledged it as the god that had brought them out of Egypt, yet Jehovah saw this from Mt. Sinai near by and did not warn against it.


4. David numbered the people and as a consequence a pestilence befell them in which so many thousands of them perished; God sent the prophet Gad to him not before but after the deed and denounced punishment.


5. Solomon was allowed to establish idolatrous worship.


6. After him many kings were allowed to profane the temple and the sacred things of the church.


7. And finally that nation was permitted to crucify the Lord.


One who hails nature and human prudence sees nothing but what contradicts divine providence in these and many other passages of the Word. He can use them as arguments in denial of providence, if not in his outward thought nearest to speech, still in his inner thought, remote from it.


237. Every worshiper of self and nature confirms himself against divine providence:


1. When he sees such numbers of wicked in the world and so many of their impieties and how some glory in them, and sees the men go unpunished by God.


2. He confirms himself the more against divine providence when he sees plots, schemes, and frauds succeed even against the devout, just, and sincere, and injustice triumph over justice in the courts and in business.


3. He confirms himself especially on seeing the impious advanced to honors and becoming leaders in the state or in the church, abounding, too, in riches and living in luxury and magnificence, and on the other hand sees worshipers of God despised and poor.


4. He also confirms himself against divine providence when he reflects that wars are permitted and the consequent slaughter of so many in them and the looting of so many cities, nations and families.


5. Furthermore, he reflects that victories are on the side of prudence and not always on the side of justice, and that it is immaterial whether a commander is upright or not.


Besides many other things of the kind, all of which are permissions according to laws of divine providence.


238. The same natural man confirms himself against divine providence when he observes how religion is circumstanced in various nations:


1. Some are totally ignorant of God; some worship the sun and moon; others idols and monstrous graven images, dead men also.


2. He notes especially that the Mohammedan religion is accepted by so many empires and kingdoms.


3. He notes that the Christian religion is found only in a very small part of the habitable globe, called Europe, and is divided there.


4. Also that some in Christendom arrogate divine power to themselves, want to be worshipped as gods, and invoke the dead.


5. And there are those who place salvation in certain phrases which they are to think and speak and not at all in good works which they are to do; likewise there are few who live their religion.


6. Besides there are heretical ideas; these have been many and some exist today, like those of the Quakers, Moravians, and Anabaptists, besides others.


7. Judaism also persists.


As a result, one who denies divine providence concludes that religion in itself is nothing, but still is needed to serve as a restraint.


239. To these more arguments can be added today by which those who think interiorly in favor of nature and of human prudence alone can still further confirm themselves. For example:


1. All Christendom has acknowledged three Gods, not knowing that God is one in essence and in person and that he is the Lord.


2. It has not been known before this that there is a spiritual sense in each particular of the Word from which it derives its holiness.


3. Again, Christians have not known that to avoid evils as sins is the Christian religion itself.


4. It has also been unknown that the human being lives as such after death.


For men may ask themselves and one another, “Why does divine providence, if it exists, reveal such things for the first time now?”


240. All the points listed in n. 236-239 have been put forward in order that it may be seen that each and all things which take place in the world are of divine providence; consequently divine providence is in the least of man’s thoughts and actions and thereby is universal. But this cannot be seen unless the points are taken up one by one; therefore they will be explained briefly in the order in which they were listed, beginning with n. 236.


241. The wisest of human beings, Adam and his wife, allowed themselves to be led astray by the serpent, and God in his divine providence did not avert this. This is because by Adam and his wife, the first human beings created in the world are not meant, but the people of the most ancient church, whose new creation or regeneration is described thus: their creation anew or regeneration in Genesis 1 by the creation of heaven and earth; their wisdom and intelligence by the Garden of Eden; and the end of that church by their eating of the tree of knowledge. For the Word in its bosom is spiritual, containing arcana of divine wisdom, and in order to contain them has been composed throughout in correspondences and representations. It is plain then that the men of that church, who at first were the wisest of men but finally became the worst through pride in their own intelligence, were led astray not by a serpent but by self-love, meant in Genesis by “the serpent’s head,” which the seed of the woman, namely, the Lord, was to trample.


[2] Who cannot see from reason that other things are meant than those recorded literally like history? For who can understand that the world could be created as there described? The learned therefore labor over the explanation of the things in the first chapter, finally confessing that they do not understand them. So of the two trees placed in the garden or paradise, one of life and the other of knowledge, the latter as a stumbling block. Again, that just by eating of this tree they transgressed so greatly that not only they but their posterity—the whole human race—became subject to damnation; further, how any serpent could lead them astray; besides other things, as that the woman was created out of a rib of her husband; that they recognized their nakedness after the fall and covered it with fig leaves; that coats of skin were given them to cover the body; and that cherubim with a flaming sword were stationed to guard the way to the tree of life.


[3] All this is representative, describing the establishment, state, alteration, and finally destruction of the most ancient church. The arcana involved, contained in the spiritual sense which fills the details, may be seen explained in Arcana Coelestia, on Genesis and Exodus, published at London. There it may also be seen that by the tree of life the Lord is meant as to his divine providence, and by the tree of knowledge man is meant as to his own prudence.


242. Their first son, Cain, killed his brother Abel, and God did not speak to him and dissuade him, but only afterwards cursed him. As the most ancient church is meant by Adam and his wife, as we have just said, the two essentials of a church, love and wisdom or charity and faith are meant by their first sons, Cain and Abel. Love and charity are meant by Abel, and wisdom and faith and in particular wisdom separate from love, and faith separate from charity, are meant by Cain. Wisdom as well as faith when separate is of such a nature that it not only rejects love and charity, but also destroys them and thus kills its brother. It is well known in Christendom that faith apart from charity does so; see Doctrine of the New Jerusalem on Faith.


[2] The curse on Cain portends the spiritual state into which those come after death who separate faith from charity or wisdom from love. But lest wisdom or faith should perish, a mark was put on Cain lest he be slain, for love cannot exist without wisdom, nor charity without faith. As almost the same thing is represented by this as by eating of the tree of knowledge, it follows next after the account of Adam and his wife. Moreover, those in faith separate from charity are in intelligence of their own; those who are in charity and thence in faith are in intelligence from the Lord, thus in divine providence.


243. The Israelites worshipped a golden calf in the wilderness and acknowledged it as the god that had brought them out of Egypt, yet Jehovah saw this from Mt. Sinai near by and did not warn against it.


This occurred in the desert of Sinai near the mountain. It is in accordance with all the laws of divine providence recounted so far and with those to follow that Jehovah did not restrain the Israelites from that atrocious worship.


This evil was permitted them that they might not all perish. For the children of Israel were brought out of Egypt to represent the Lord’s church; they could not represent it unless the Egyptian idolatry was first rooted out of their hearts. This could not be done unless it was left to them to act upon what was in their hearts and then to remove it on being severely punished. What further is signified by that worship, by the threat that they would be entirely rejected, and by the possibility that a new nation might be raised from Moses, may be seen in Arcana Coelestia on Exodus 32, where these things are spoken of.


244. David numbered the people and as a consequence a pestilence befell them in which so many thousands of them perished; God sent the prophet Gad to him not before but after the deed and denounced punishment. One who confirms himself against divine providence may have various thoughts about this also and ponder especially why David was not admonished first and why the people were so severely punished for the king’s transgression. That he was not warned first is in accord with the laws of divine providence already adduced, especially with the two explained at n. 129-153 and 154-174. The people were so severely punished for the king’s transgression and seventy thousand smitten by the pestilence not on account of the king but on account of themselves, for we read:


The anger of Jehovah kindled still more against Israel; therefore he incited David against them saying, Go, number Israel and Judah (2 Sam. 24:1).


245. Solomon was allowed to establish idolatrous forms of worship. For he was to represent the Lord’s kingdom or church in all varieties of religion in the world. For the church established with the Israelitish and Jewish nation was a representative church; all of its judgments and statutes represented the spiritual things of a church, which are its internals. The people represented the church, the king the Lord, David the Lord to come into the world, Solomon the Lord after his coming. As the Lord after the glorification of his humanity had all power over heaven and earth (as he said, Matt. 28:18), Solomon as representative of him appeared in glory and magnificence, was wise beyond all earthly kings, and also built the temple. Moreover, he permitted and set up the forms of worship of many nations, by which the various religions of the world were represented. His wives, who numbered seven hundred, and his concubines who numbered three hundred (1 Kings 11:13), had a similar signification, for “wife” in the Word signifies the church and “concubine” a form of religion. Hence it may be evident why it was granted Solomon to build the temple, by which the Divine humanity of the Lord (John 2:19, 21) is signified and the church, too; and why he was allowed to establish idolatrous forms of worship and to take so many wives. See Doctrine of the New Jerusalem about the Lord (n. 43, 44) that in many places in the Word the Lord who was to come into the world is meant by David.


246. After Solomon many kings were allowed to profane the temple and the sacred things of the church. This was because the people represented the church and the king was their head. The Israelitish and Jewish nation was of such a nature that they could not represent the church for long, for at heart they were idolaters; they therefore relapsed gradually from representative worship, perverting all things of the church, even to devastating it finally. This was represented by the profanations of the temple by the kings, and by the people’s idolatries; the full devastation of the church was represented by the destruction of the temple, the carrying off of Israel, and the captivity of Judah in Babylon. Such was the cause of this toleration; and what is done for some cause is done under divine providence according to one of its laws.


247. That nation was permitted to crucify the Lord. This was because the church with that nation was entirely devastated and had become such that they not only did not know or acknowledge the Lord, but hated him. Still, all that they did to him was according to laws of his divine providence. See in Doctrine of the New Jerusalem about the Lord (n. 12-14) and Doctrine of the New Jerusalem on Faith (n. 34, 35) that the passion of the cross was the last temptation or battle by which the Lord fully conquered the hells and fully glorified his humanity.


248. So far the points listed at n. 236 have been explained, involving passages in the Word by which the naturally minded reasoner may confirm himself against divine providence. For, as was said, whatever such a man sees, hears, or reads he can make into an argument against providence. Few persons, however, confirm themselves against divine providence from incidents in the Word, but many do so from things before their eyes, listed at n. 237. These are to be explained now in like manner.


249. Every worshiper of self and of nature confirms himself against divine providence when he sees so many impious in the world and so many of their impieties and how some glory in them, yet sees the impious go unpunished by God. All impieties and all gloryings in them are permissions, of which the causes are laws of divine providence. Each human being can freely, indeed very freely, think what he wills, against God as well as in favor of God. One who thinks against God is rarely punished in the natural world, for he is always in a state to be reformed then, but is punished in the spiritual world, which is done after death, for then he can no longer be reformed.


[2] That laws of divine providence are the causes of tolerance is clear from the laws set forth above, if you will recall and examine them. They are: that man shall act in freedom according to reason (of this law above, n. 71-79); that he shall not be forced by external means to think and will, thus to believe and love what is of religion, but bring himself and sometimes compel himself to do so (n. 129-153); that there is no such thing as one’s own prudence, but there only appears to be and it should so appear, but divine providence is universal from being in the least things (n. 191-213); divine providence looks to what is eternal, and to the temporal only as this makes one with the eternal (n. 214-220); man is not admitted inwardly into truths of faith and goods of charity except as he can be kept in them to the close of life (n. 221-233).


[3] That the laws of divine providence are the causes of tolerance will also be evident from the following, for one thing from this: evils are tolerated because of the end, which is salvation. Again from this: that divine providence is continual with the wicked as well as with the good. And finally from this: the Lord cannot act contrary to the laws of his divine providence because to do so would be to act contrary to his divine love and wisdom, thus contrary to himself.


Brought together, these laws can make the causes manifest why impieties are tolerated by the Lord and are not punished while they exist in the thought only and rarely, too, while they exist in intention, thus in the will but not in act. Yet its own punishment follows every evil; it is as if its punishment were inscribed on an evil, and the impious man suffers it after death.


[4] These considerations also explain the next point, listed at n. 237: The worshiper of self and of nature confirms himself still more against divine providence when he sees plots, schemes, and frauds succeed even against the devout, just, and sincere, and injustice triumph over justice in the courts and in business. All the laws of divine providence have requirements; and as they are the causes why such things are permitted, it is plain that for man to live as a human being and be reformed and saved, these things can be removed from him by the Lord only through means. The Word and, in particular, the precepts of the Decalogue are the means with those who acknowledge all kinds of murder, adultery, theft, and false witness to be sins. With those who do not acknowledge such things as sins, they are removed by means of the civil laws and fear of their penalties and by means also of the moral laws and fear of disrepute and consequent loss of standing and wealth. By the latter means the Lord leads the evil, but only away from doing such things, not from thinking and willing them. But by the former means he leads the good, not only away from doing them, but from thinking and willing them, too.


250. The worshiper of self and of nature confirms himself against divine providence on seeing the impious advanced to honors and becoming leaders in the state and in the church, abounding, too, in riches and living in luxury and magnificence, and on the other hand sees worshipers of God despised and poor. A worshiper of self and of nature believes that standing and riches are the greatest and the one felicity possible, thus felicity itself. If he has some thought of God as a result of worship begun in childhood, he calls them divine blessings, and as long as he is not elated by them he thinks that there is a God and worships him.


But in the worship there lurks a desire, of which he is unaware then, to be advanced by God to still higher standing and to still greater wealth. If he attains them, his worship tends more and more to externalities until it slips away and at last he makes little account of God and denies him. The same thing occurs if he is cast down from the standing and loses the riches on which he has set his heart. What, then, are standing and riches to the wicked but stumbling blocks?


[2] To the good they are not, for these do not set their heart on them, but on the uses or goods for rendering which standing and wealth serve as means. Hence only a worshiper of self and of nature can confirm himself against divine providence because the impious are advanced to honors and become leaders in the state and in the church. Moreover, what is greater or less standing, or greater or less wealth? Is this not in itself imaginary? Is one person more blessed and happier than another for it? Is a great man’s standing, or even a king’s or an emperor’s, not regarded in a year’s time as a commonplace, no longer exalting his heart with joy but quite possibly becoming worthless to him? Have those with standing a larger measure of happiness than those with little standing or even the least standing, like farmers and their hands? May not these enjoy more happiness when it is well with them and they are content with their lot? What is more unquiet at heart, more often provoked, or more violently enraged than self-love? It happens as often as it is not honored to suit the haughtiness of its heart or as something does not succeed at its beck and wish. What, then, is standing except an idea, unless it attaches to the office or the use? Can the idea exist in any other thought than thought about self and the world, and does it not really mean that the world is all and eternity nothing?


[3] Something shall be said now about why divine providence permits the impious at heart to be promoted to standing and to acquire wealth. The impious or the evil can render services as well as the pious or good, indeed with more fire, for they regard themselves in the use and their standing as the use. As self-love mounts, therefore, the lust of doing service for one’s glory is fired. There is no such fire with the devout or good unless it is kindled incidentally to their standing. Therefore the Lord governs the impious at heart who have standing by their desire for a name and arouses them to perform uses to the community or their country, their society or city, and their fellow citizen or neighbor.


With such persons this is the Lord’s government which is called divine providence, for the Lord’s kingdom is one of uses, and where only a few perform uses for uses’ sake providence brings it about that worshipers of self are raised to higher offices, in which each is incited by his love to do good.


[4] Suppose an infernal kingdom in the world (though there is none) where self-love alone rules, which is itself the devil, would not everyone perform uses with the zeal of self-love and for the enhancement of his glory more than in another kingdom? The public good is borne on the lips of them all, but their own benefit in the heart. And as each relies on what rules him in order to become greater, and aspires to be greatest, how can he see that God exists? A smoke like that of a conflagration envelops him through which no spiritual truth can pass with its light. I have seen that smoke around the hells of such men. Light a lamp and inquire how many in present-day kingdoms aspire to eminence who are not loves of self and the world. Will you find fifty in a thousand who are loves of God, among whom, moreover, only a few aspire to eminence? Since so few are loves of God and so many are loves of self and the world and since the latter perform more uses by their ardor, how can one confirm himself against divine providence because the evil surpass the good in eminence and opulence?


[5] This is borne out also by these words of the Lord:


The lord praised the unjust steward because he had acted prudently; for the sons of this age are more prudent in their generation than the sons of light in their generation. So I say to you, Make friends for yourselves of the unjust mammon that when you fail they may receive you into eternal habitations (Luke 16:8, 9).


The meaning in the sense of the letter is plain. But in the spiritual sense by the “mammon of injustice” are meant knowledges of good and truth which the evil possess and employ solely to acquire standing and wealth for themselves. It is of these knowledges that the good or the children of light are to make friends for themselves and it is these knowledges that will conduct them into eternal homes. The Lord also teaches that many are loves of self and the world, and few are loves of God, in these words:


Wide is the gate, and broad is the way, which leads to destruction, and many there be who enter it; but narrow and strait is the way which leads to life, and there are few who find it (Matt. 7:13, 14).


It may be seen above (n. 217) that eminence and riches are either curses or blessings, and with whom they are the one or the other.


251. The worshiper of self and of nature confirms himself against divine providence when he reflects that wars are permitted and the consequent slaughter in them of so many men and the plundering of their wealth. It is not by divine providence that wars occur, for they entail murder, plunder, violence, cruelty, and other terrible evils which are diametrically opposed to Christian charity. Yet they cannot but be permitted because the life’s love of mankind, since the time of the most ancient people, meant by Adam and his wife (n. 241), has become such that it wants to rule over others and finally over all, and also to possess the wealth of the world and finally all wealth. These two loves cannot be kept in fetters, for it is according to divine providence that everyone is allowed to act in freedom in accordance with reason, as may be seen above (n. 71-97); and apart from permissions man cannot be led from evil by the Lord and consequently cannot be reformed and saved. For unless evils were allowed to break out, man would not see them, therefore would not acknowledge them, and thus could not be induced to resist them. Evils cannot be repressed, therefore, by any act of providence; if they were, they would remain shut in, and like a disease such as cancer and gangrene, would spread and consume everything vital in man.


[2] For from birth man is like a little hell between which and heaven there is perpetual discord. No one can be withdrawn from his hell by the Lord unless he sees he is in it and desires to be led out of it. This cannot be done apart from tolerations the causes of which are laws of divine providence. As a result, minor and major wars occur, the minor between owners of estates and their neighbors, and the major between sovereigns of kingdoms and their neighbors. Except for size the only difference is that the minor conflicts are held within limits by a country’s laws and the major by the law of nations; each may wish to transgress its laws, but the minor cannot, and while the major can, still the possibility has limits.


[3] Hidden in the stores of divine wisdom are several causes why the major wars of kings and rulers, involving murder, looting, violence, and cruelty as they do, are not prevented by the Lord, either at their beginning or during their course, only finally when the power of one or the other has been so reduced that he is in danger of annihilation. Some of the causes have been revealed to me and among them is this: all wars, although they are civil in character, represent in heaven states of the church and are correspondences. The wars described in the Word were all of this character; so are all wars at this day.


Those in the Word are the wars which the children of Israel waged with various nations, Amorites, Moabites, Philistines, Syrians, Egyptians, Chaldeans and Assyrians. Moreover, it was when the children of Israel, who represented the church, departed from their precepts and statutes and fell into evils represented by other peoples (for each nation with which the children of Israel waged war represented a particular evil), that they were punished by that nation. For instance, when they profaned the sanctities of the church by foul idolatries they were punished by the Assyrians and Chaldeans because Assyria and Chaldea signify the profanation of what is holy. What was signified by the wars with the Philistines may be seen in Doctrine of the New Jerusalem on Faith (n. 50-54).


[4] Wars at the present day, wherever they may occur, represent similar things. For all things which occur in the natural world correspond to spiritual things in the spiritual world, and all spiritual things are related to the church. It is not known in the world which kingdoms in Christendom represent the Moabites, the Ammonites, the Syrians, the Philistines, the Chaldeans, and the Assyrians or others, with whom the children of Israel waged war; yet there are nations that do so. Moreover, the condition of the church on earth and what the evils are into which it falls and for which it is punished by wars, cannot be seen at all in the natural world, for only externals are manifest here and these do not constitute the church. This is seen, however, in the spiritual world where internal conditions appear and in these the church itself consists. There all are united according to their various states. Conflicts between them correspond to wars, which on both sides are governed by the Lord correspondentially in accordance with his divine providence.


[5] The spiritual man acknowledges that wars on earth are ruled by the Lord’s divine providence. The natural man does not, except that at a celebration of a victory he may thank God on his knees for having given the victory, and except for a few words on going into battle. But when he returns into himself he ascribes the victory either to the prudence of the general or to some counsel or incident in the midst of the fighting which escaped notice and yet decided the victory.


[6] It may be seen above (n. 212) that divine providence, which is called fortune, is in the least things, even in trivial ones, and if you acknowledge divine providence in these you will certainly do so in the issues of war. Success and happy conduct of war, moreover, are in common parlance called the fortune of war, and this is divine providence, to be found especially in a general’s judgments and plans, although he may at the time and also afterwards ascribe all to his own prudence. This he may do if he will, for he has full freedom to think in favor of divine providence or against it, indeed in favor of God or against him; but let him know that no judgment or plan is from himself; it comes either from heaven or from hell, from hell by permission, from heaven by providence.


252. A worshiper of self and of nature confirms himself against divine providence when he thinks, as he sees it, that victories are on the side of prudence and not always on the side of justice, and that it is immaterial whether a commander is upright or not. Victories seem to be on the side of prudence and not always on the side of justice, because man judges by the appearance and favors one side more than the other and can by reasoning confirm what he favors. Nor does he know that the justice of a cause is spiritual in heaven and natural in the world, as was said just above, and that the two are united in a connection of things past and of things to come, known only to the Lord.


[2] It is immaterial whether the commander is an upright man or not because, as was established above (n. 250), the evil as well as the good perform uses, and by their zeal more ardently than the good. This is so especially in war because the evil man is more crafty and cunning in devising schemes than a good man, and in his love of glory takes pleasure in killing and plundering those whom he knows and declares to be the enemy. The good man has prudence and zeal for defense and rarely for attacking. This is much the same as it is with spirits of hell and angels of heaven; the spirits of hell attack and the angels of heaven defend themselves. Hence comes this conclusion that it is allowable for one to defend his country and his fellow citizens against invading enemies even by iniquitous commanders, but not allowable to make oneself an enemy without cause. To have the seeking of glory for cause is in itself diabolical, for it comes of self-love.


253. The points made above (n. 237) by which the merely natural man confirms himself against divine providence have now been explained. The points which follow (n. 238) about the varieties of religion in many nations, which also serve the merely natural man for arguments against divine providence, are to be clarified next. For the merely natural man says in his heart, How can so many discordant religions exist instead of one worldwide and true religion when (as was shown above, n. 27-45) divine providence has a heaven from mankind for its purpose? But pray, listen: all human beings who are born, however numerous and of whatever religion, can be saved if only they acknowledge God and live according to the precepts of the Decalogue, which forbid committing murder, adultery, theft, and false witness, because to do such things is contrary to religion and therefore contrary to God. Such persons fear God and love the neighbor. They fear God inasmuch as they think that to do such things is to act against God, and they love the neighbor because to murder, commit adultery, steal, bear false witness, and covet the neighbor’s house or wife is to act against one’s neighbor. Heeding God in their lives and doing no evil to the neighbor, they are led by the Lord, and those whom he leads are also taught about God and the neighbor in accordance with their religion, for those who live in this way love to be taught, but those living otherwise have no such desire. Loving to be taught, they are also instructed by angels after death when they become spirits, and willingly receive such truths as the Word contains. Something about them may be seen in Doctrine of the New Jerusalem about Sacred Scripture (n. 91-97 and 104-113).


254. The merely natural man confirms himself against divine providence when he observes the religious conditions in various nations and notes that some people are totally ignorant of God, some worship the sun and moon, and some worship idols and graven images. Those who argue from these facts against divine providence are ignorant of the arcana of heaven; these arcana are innumerable and man is acquainted with hardly any of them. Among them is this: man is not taught from heaven directly but mediately (this may be seen treated above, n. 154-174). Because he is taught mediately, and the Gospel could not through the medium of missionaries reach all who dwell in the world, but religion could be spread in various ways to inhabitants of the remote corners of the earth, this has been effected by divine providence. For a knowledge of religion does not come to a man from himself, but through another who has either learned it from the Word or by tradition from others who have learned it, for instance that God is, heaven and hell exist, there is a life after death, and God must be worshipped for man to be blessed.


[2] See in Doctrine of the New Jerusalem about Sacred Scripture (n. 101-103) that religion spread throughout the world from the ancient Word and afterwards from the Israelitish Word, and (n. 114-118) that unless there had been a Word no one could have known about God, heaven and hell, life after death, and still less about the Lord. Once a religion is established in a nation the Lord leads that nation according to the precepts and tenets of its own religion, and he has provided that there should be precepts in every religion like those in the Decalogue, that God should be worshipped, his name not be profaned, a holy day be observed, that parents be honored, murder, adultery, and theft not be committed, and false witness not be spoken.


A nation that regards these precepts as divine and lives according to them in religion’s name is saved, as was just said (n. 253). Most nations remote from Christendom regard these laws not as civil but as divine, and hold them sacred. See in Doctrine of Life for the New Jerusalem from the Precepts of the Decalogue, from beginning to end, that a man is saved by a life according to these precepts.


[3] Also among the arcana of heaven is this: in the Lord’s sight the angelic heaven is like one man whose soul and life is the Lord. In each particular of his form this divine man is man, not only as to the external members and organs but as to the more numerous internal members and organs, also as to the skins, membranes, cartilages, and bones; but in that man all these, both external and internal, are not material but spiritual. Further, the Lord has provided that those who cannot be reached by the Gospel but only by some form of religion shall also have a place in this divine man, that is, in heaven, by constituting the parts called skins, membranes, cartilages, and bones, and like others should be in heavenly joy. For it does not matter whether their joy is that of the angels of the highest heaven or of the lowest heaven, for everyone entering heaven comes into the highest joy of his own heart; joy higher still he does not endure; he would suffocate in it.


[4] A peasant and a king may serve for comparison. A peasant may reach the height of joy when he steps out in a new suit of homespun wool or seats himself at a table with pork, a piece of beef, cheese, beer, and fiery wine on it. He would feel constricted at heart if he was clothed like a king in purple, silk, gold, and silver, or if a table was set for him on which were delicacies and costly dishes of many kinds with noble wine. It is plain from this that the last as well as the first find heavenly happiness, each in his measure, those outside Christendom also, therefore, provided they shun evils as sins against God because these are contrary to religion.


[5] Few are entirely ignorant of God. If they have lived a moral life they are instructed after death by angels and receive what is spiritual in their moral life (see Doctrine of the New Jerusalem about Sacred Scripture, n. 116). The same is true of those who worship sun and moon, believing that God is there. They know no better, therefore it is not imputed to them as a sin, for the Lord says:


If you were blind (that is, if you did not know), you would have no sin (John 9:41).


But there are many who worship idols and graven images even in the Christian world. This, to be sure, is idolatrous, yet not with all. There are those for whom graven images serve as a means of exciting thought about God, for by an influx from heaven one who acknowledges God desires to see him, and these, unable to raise the mind above the sensuous as those do who are inwardly spiritual, rouse it by means of statue or image. Those who do so and do not worship the image itself as God are saved if they also live by the precepts of the Decalogue from religious principle.


[6] It is plain, then, that as the Lord desires the salvation of all, he has also provided that everyone who lives well may have a place in heaven. See in the work Heaven and Hell, published at London, 1758 (n. 59-102), in Arcana Coelestia (n. 5552-5569) and above (n. 201-204) that heaven in the Lord’s sight is like one man; that heaven accordingly corresponds to each and all things in man; and that there are also those who represent skin, membranes, cartilages, and bones.


255. The merely natural man confirms himself against divine providence when he sees the Mohammedan religion accepted by so many empires and kingdoms. The fact that this form of religion is accepted by more kingdoms than the Christian religion may be a stumbling block to those who give thought to divine providence and at the same time believe that no one can be saved unless he has been born a Christian, thus where the Word is, by which the Lord is known. That form of religion is no stumbling block, however, to those who believe that all things are of divine providence. These ask in what the providence consists and find it is in this, that Mohammedanism acknowledges the Lord as Son of God, the wisest of men and a very great prophet who came into the world to teach men; most Mohammedans consider him to be greater than Mohammed.


[2] That form of religion was called forth in the divine providence to destroy the idolatries of many nations. To make this fully known we will pursue some order; first, something on the origin of idolatries. Previously to that form of religion the worship of idols was general in the world. This was because the churches before the Lord’s advent were all representative churches. The Israelitish church was of this character. In it the tabernacle, Aaron’s garments, the sacrifices, all things of the temple in Jerusalem, the statutes also, were representative. Moreover, the ancients had a knowledge of correspondences, which is the knowledge of representations—it was the chief knowledge of their wise men. This knowledge was cultivated especially in Egypt and was the origin of Egyptian hieroglyphics. By that knowledge the ancients knew what animals of every kind signified and what trees of every kind signified, as they did what mountains, hills, rivers, and fountains signified, as well as sun, moon, and stars. As all their worship was representative, consisting of sheer correspondences, they worshipped on mountains and hills and in groves and gardens, regarded fountains as sacred, and in adoration of God faced the rising sun. Furthermore, they made graven images of horses, oxen, calves, and lambs, and of birds, fish, and serpents, and placed them in their houses and elsewhere, arranged according to the spiritual things of the church to which they corresponded or which they represented. They placed similar objects in their temples, too, to put them in mind of the holy things they signified.


[3] Later, when the knowledge of correspondences had been lost, their posterity began to worship the graven images themselves, as holy in themselves, not knowing that their forefathers had seen no holiness in them, but only that they represented holy things by correspondences and thus signified them. So arose the idolatries which filled the whole world, Africa and Europe as well as Asia with its adjacent islands. In order that all these idolatries might be uprooted, of the Lord’s divine providence it was brought about that a new religion, adapted to the genius of Orientals, should start up, in which there would be something from each Testament of the Word, and which would teach that the Lord had come into the world and was a very great prophet, wisest of all, and Son of God. This was done through Mohammed, from whom the religion is called the Mohammedan religion.


[4] Of the Lord’s divine providence this religion was raised up and, as we said, adapted to the genius of Orientals, in order that it might destroy the idolatries of so many peoples and give them some knowledge of the Lord before they passed into the spiritual world.


This religion would not have been accepted by so many kingdoms or had the power to uproot idolatries, had it not suited and met the ideas and thinking of them all. It did not acknowledge the Lord as God of heaven and earth, for the Orientals acknowledged God the creator of the universe, but could not comprehend that he came into the world and assumed human nature, quite as Christians do not comprehend this, who therefore separate his divine from his humanity in their thinking and place his divine near the Father in heaven and his humanity they know not where.


[5] Hence it may be seen that the Mohammedan religion arose under the Lord’s divine providence and that all adherents of it who acknowledge the Lord as Son of God and live according to the precepts of the Decalogue, which they also have, shunning evils as sins, come into a heaven called the Mohammedan heaven. This heaven, like others, is divided into three, the highest, middle, and lowest. Those who acknowledge the Lord to be one with the Father and thus the one God are in the highest heaven; in the next heaven are those who renounce a plurality of wives and live with one; and in the lowest are those who are being initiated. More about this religion may be seen in Continuation about the Last Judgment and the Spiritual World (n. 68-72), where the Mohammedans and Mohammed are treated of.


256. The merely natural man confirms himself against divine providence when he sees that the Christian religion exists only in a small part of the habitable world, called Europe, and there is divided.


The Christian religion exists only in the small part of the habitable world called Europe because it was not adapted to the genius of Orientals as was a mixed one like the Mohammedan religion, as was just shown; and an unadapted religion is not received. For example, a religion which ordains that it is unlawful to take more than one wife is not received but rejected by those who for ages have been polygamists. This is true of other ordinances of the Christian religion.


[2] Nor is it material whether a smaller or a larger part of the world has received this religion, as long as there are people with whom the Word is. For those who are outside the church and do not possess the Word still have light from it, as was shown in Doctrine of the New Jerusalem about Sacred Scripture, n. 104-113. It is a marvel that where the Word is reverently read and the Lord is worshipped from it, he is present with heaven. The reason is that he is the Word and the Word is divine truth which makes heaven. The Lord therefore says:


Where two or three are gathered in my name, there am I in the midst of them (Matt. 18:20).


Europeans can bring this about with the Word in many parts of the habitable globe, for they trade the world over and read or teach the Word everywhere. This seems like fiction and yet is true.


[3] The Christian religion is divided because it is from the Word and the Word is written in sheer correspondences and these in large part are appearances of truth in which, nevertheless, genuine truths lie concealed. As a church’s doctrine is to be drawn from the sense of the letter of the Word which is of this character, disputes, controversies, and dissensions were bound to arise over the understanding of the Word, but not over the Word itself or the Divine itself of the Lord. For it is acknowledged everywhere that the Word is holy and that the Lord possesses the divine, and these two are essentials of the church. Those, therefore, who deny the Divine of the Lord and are called Socinians have been excommunicated from the church, and those who deny the holiness of the Word are not regarded as Christians.


[4] To this let me add a remarkable item about the Word from which one may conclude that inwardly the Word is divine truth itself and inmostly the Lord. When a spirit opens the Word and touches his face or dress with it, just from the contact his face or garment shines as brightly as the moon or a star, in the sight of all, too, whom he meets. It is evidence that there is nothing holier in the world than the Word.


That the Word is written throughout in correspondences may be seen in Doctrine of the New Jerusalem about Sacred Scripture, n. 5-26; that the church’s doctrine is to be drawn from the sense of the letter of the Word and confirmed thereby, n. 50-61; that heresies can be wrested from the sense of the letter of the Word, but that it is harmful to confirm them, n. 91-97; that the church is from the Word and is such as is its understanding of the Word, n. 76-79.


257. The merely natural man confirms himself against divine providence because in many kingdoms where the Christian religion is accepted there are those who arrogate divine power to themselves, want to be worshipped as gods, and also invoke dead men. To be sure, they say that they have not arrogated divine power to themselves and do not wish to be worshipped as gods. Yet they say that they can open and close heaven, remit and retain sins, and so save and condemn men, and this is what is divine itself. Divine providence has no other purpose than reformation and hence salvation; this is its unceasing activity with everyone. And salvation can be effected only by acknowledgment of the divine of the Lord and by confidence that he brings salvation as man lives according to his commandments.


[2] Who cannot see that the usurpation of divine power is the Babylon described in Revelation and the Babel spoken of here and there in the Prophets? It is also Lucifer in Isaiah 14, as is plain from verses 4 and 22 of that chapter, where are the words:


You shall speak this parable about the king of Babel (Isa. 14:4); [Then] I will cut off the name and remnant of Babel (Isa. 14:22).


It is plain from this that this Babel is Lucifer, of whom it is said:


How you have fallen from heaven, O Lucifer, son of the morning! . . . For you have said in your heart, I will ascend into heaven, I will exalt my throne above the stars of God; I will also sit on the mount of the congregation, at the sides of the north; I will ascend above the heights of the clouds; I will be like the Most High (Isa. 14:12-14).


It is well known that the same persons invoke the dead and pray to them for help. We make the assertion because such invocation was established by a papal bull, confirming the decree of the Council of Trent, in which it is openly said that the dead are to be invoked. Yet who does not know that only God is to be invoked, and not any dead person?


[3] It shall be told now why the Lord has permitted such things. Can one deny that he has done so for the sake of the end in view, namely salvation? For men know that there is no salvation without the Lord. Therefore it was necessary that the Lord should be preached from the Word and that the Christian church should be established by this means. This could be done, however, only by leaders who would act with zeal and no others offered than those who burned with zeal out of self-love. At first this fire aroused them to preach the Lord and teach the Word. From this their first state Lucifer is called “the son of the morning” (Isa. 14:12). But as they saw that they could dominate by means of the sanctities of the Word and the church, the self-love by which they were first aroused to preach the Lord broke out from within and finally exalted itself to such a height that they transferred all the Lord’s divine power to themselves, leaving him none.


[4] This could not be prevented by the Lord’s divine providence, for if it had been they would have declared that the Lord is not God and that the Word is not sacred and would have made themselves Socinians and Arians, so would have destroyed the whole church. But, whatever its rulers are, the church continues among the people submissive to them. For all in this religion who approach the Lord and shun evils as sins are saved; therefore many heavenly societies are formed from them in the spiritual world. It has also been provided that there should be a nation among them that has not bowed to the yoke of such domination and that regards the Word as holy; this noble nation is the French nation.


[5] But what was done? When self-love exalted its dominion even to the Lord’s throne, removing him and setting itself on it, that love, which is Lucifer, could not but have profaned all things of the Word and the church. Lest this should happen, the Lord in his divine providence took care that they should recede from worship of him, invoke the dead, pray to graven images of the dead, kiss their bones and kneel at their tombs, should ban the reading of the Word, appoint holy worship in masses not understood by the common people, and sell salvation for money.


For if they had not done this, they would have profaned the sanctities of the Word and the church. For, as was shown in the preceding section, only those profane holy things who know them.


[6] Lest, too, they should profane the most Holy Supper it is of the Lord’s divine providence that they divide it, giving the bread to the people and drinking the wine themselves. For the wine of the Supper signifies holy truth and the bread holy good; but divided the wine signifies truth profaned and the bread good adulterated. It is also of the Lord’s divine providence that they should render the Holy Supper corporeal and material and give it the prime place in religion.


Anyone who gives these particulars his attention and reflects on them in some enlightenment of his mind can see the amazing action of divine providence for the protection of the sanctities of the church and for the salvation of all who can be saved and are ready to be snatched from the fire, so to speak, from which they must be snatched.


258. The merely natural man confirms himself against divine providence because some among those who profess the Christian religion place salvation in certain phrases which they are to think and speak and not at all in good works which they are to do. We showed in Doctrine of the New Jerusalem about Faith that these are such as make faith alone saving and not the life of charity, thus such as separate faith from charity. It was also shown that these are meant in the Word by “Philistines,” “dragon,” and “goats.”


[2] That such doctrine has been permitted is also of divine providence lest the divine of the Lord and the sanctity of the Word should be profaned. The divine of the Lord is not profaned when salvation is placed in these words: That God the Father may have mercy for the sake of the Son, who suffered the cross and made satisfaction for us. For men do not then address the divine of the Lord but have in mind his human nature, which they do not acknowledge to be divine. Nor do they profane the Word, for they do not attend to the passages in which love, charity, deeds, and works are mentioned. All this, they say, is involved in the faith expressed in the saying quoted. Those who confirm this tell themselves, “The law does not condemn me, neither then does evil, and good does not save because good done by me is not good.” They are therefore like those who do not know any truth from the Word and consequently cannot profane it. Only those confirm the faith expressed in that saying who from self-love are in the pride of their own intelligence. Nor are these Christians at heart; they only desire to be looked on as such.


[3] It shall now be shown that the Lord’s divine providence is nevertheless acting constantly to save those with whom faith separated from charity has become an article of religion. Although this faith has become an article of their religion, by the Lord’s divine providence each knows that it is not faith that saves, but a life of charity with which faith makes one. For all churches in which that religion is accepted also teach that there is no salvation unless man examines himself, sees, and acknowledges his sins, repents, desists from them, and begins a new life. This is read out with much zeal in the presence of all who come to the Holy Supper. In addition they are told that unless they do so, they mingle the holy with the profane and cast themselves into eternal condemnation. Indeed, in England they are told that unless they do so the devil will enter them as he did Judas and destroy them soul and body. It is plain, then, that everyone in the churches in which faith alone is accepted is nevertheless taught that evils are to be shunned as sins.


[4] Furthermore, everyone who is born a Christian is aware that evils are to be shunned as sins because the Decalogue is put into the hands of every boy and girl and is taught by parents and teachers. The citizens of a kingdom and especially the common people are examined by the priest on the Decalogue alone, which is recited from memory, for what they know of the Christian religion, and are also admonished to do what is commanded in it. At such times they are not told by the priest that they are not under the yoke of that law, or that they cannot do what is commanded because they cannot do anything good of themselves. Again, the Athanasian Creed has been accepted throughout the Christian world and what is said at its close is also acknowledged, namely, that the Lord will come to judge the living and the dead, and then those who have done good will enter everlasting life and those who have done evil will enter everlasting fire.


[5] In Sweden, where the religion of faith alone has been received, it is also plainly taught that faith is impossible apart from charity or good works. This is pointed out in an appendix on things to be remembered, inserted in all copies of the Psalms, and called “impediments or stumbling blocks of the impenitent” [obotferdigas foerhinder], where are these words,


Those who are rich in good works thereby show that they are rich in faith, because when faith is saving it acts through charity. For justifying faith is never found alone and separate from good works, quite as no good tree is without fruit, nor the sun without light and heat, nor water without moisture.


[6] These items have been adduced to make known that although a religious formula about faith alone has been accepted, nevertheless goods of charity, which are good works, are taught everywhere and that this is by the Lord’s divine providence, lest the common people be led astray by the formula. I have heard Luther, with whom I have spoken at times in the spiritual world, execrate faith alone and heard him say that when he established it he was warned by an angel of the Lord not to do it; but that he thought to himself that if he did not reject works, separation from Catholicism would not be accomplished. Therefore, contrary to the warning, he established that faith.


259. The merely natural man confirms himself against divine providence in that there have been so many heresies in Christendom and still are, such as Quakerism, Moravianism, Anabaptism, and more. For he may think to himself, If divine providence is universal in the least things and has the salvation of all for its object, it would have seen to it that one true religion should exist on the globe, not one divided and, still less, one torn by heresies. But use reason and think more deeply if you can. Can man be saved without being reformed first? For he is born into love of self and the world, and as these loves do not have any love of God and the neighbor in them except for the sake of self, he is also born into evils of every kind. Is there love or mercy in those loves? Does the man make anything of defrauding or defaming or hating another even to death, or of committing adultery with his wife, or of being cruel to him out of revenge, the while having the desire in mind to get the upper hand of all and to possess the goods of all others, thus regarding others in comparison with himself as insignificant and of little worth?


To be saved, must he not first be led away from these evils and thus be reformed? As has been shown above in many places, this can be accomplished only in accordance with many laws of divine providence. For the most part these laws are unknown and yet they come of divine wisdom and at the same time of divine love, and the Lord cannot act contrary to them, for to do so would result in destroying man, not in saving him.


[2] Look over the laws which have been set forth, bring them together, and you will see. According to those laws there is no direct influx from heaven but one mediated by the Word, doctrine and preaching; and since the Word, to be divine, had to be composed wholly in correspondences, inevitably there are dissensions and heresies. The tolerance of them is also in accord with the laws of divine providence. Furthermore, when the church itself has taken for essentials what pertains only to the understanding, that is, to doctrine, and not what pertains to the will, that is, to life, and what pertains to life is not made the essentials of a church, then man is in complete darkness for understanding and wanders like one blind, striking against things constantly and falling into pits. For the will must see in the understanding and not the understanding in the will, or what is the same, the life and its love must lead the understanding to think, speak and act, and not the reverse. Were the reverse true, the understanding might out of an evil and even diabolical love seize on what comes by the senses and demand that the will do it. What has been said may show whence dissensions and heresies come.


[3] Yet it has been provided that everyone, in whatever heresy he may be intellectually, may still be reformed and saved if he shuns evils as sins and does not confirm heretical falsities in himself. For by shunning evils as sins the will is reformed and through it the understanding is, which emerges for the first time then out of obscurity into light. There are three essentials of the church: acknowledgment of the divine of the Lord, acknowledgment of the holiness of the Word, and the life which is called charity. Everyone’s faith is according to the life which is charity; from the Word he has a rational perception of what life should be; and from the Lord he has reformation and salvation. Had these three been regarded as the church’s essentials, intellectual differences would not have divided it but only varied it as light varies colors in beautiful objects and as various insignia of royalty give beauty to a king’s crown.


260. The merely natural man confirms himself against divine providence in that Judaism still continues. That is, after all these centuries the Jews have not been converted although they live among Christians and do not, in keeping with prophecies in the Word, confess the Lord and acknowledge him to be the Messiah, who, as they think, was to lead them back to the land of Canaan; but they steadfastly persist in denying him and yet it is well with them. Those who take this view, however, and thus call divine providence in question, do not know that by Jews in the Word all who are of the church and acknowledge the Lord are meant, and by the land of Canaan, into which it is said that they are to be led, the Lord’s church is meant.


[2] But the Jews persist in denying the Lord because they are such that, if they received and acknowledged the divine of the Lord and the holy things of his church, they would profane them. Therefore the Lord said of them:


He has blinded their eyes, and hardened their heart; that they should not see with their eyes, nor understand with their heart, and be converted, and I should heal them (John 12:40; Matt. 13:14; Mark 4:12; Luke 8:10; Isa. 6:9, 10).


It is said, “lest they should be converted, and I should heal them” because if they had been converted and healed they would have committed profanation, and according to the law of divine providence treated above (n. 221-233) no one is admitted interiorly into truths of faith and goods of charity by the Lord except so far as he can be kept in them to the close of life; were he admitted, he would profane what is holy.


[3] This nation has been preserved and dispersed over much of the earth for the sake of the Word in its original language, which they hold more sacred than Christians do. The Lord’s divine is in every particular of the Word, for it is divine truth joined with divine good coming from the Lord. By it the Lord is united with the church, and heaven is present, as was shown in Doctrine of the New Jerusalem about Sacred Scripture (n. 62-69). The Lord and heaven are present wherever the Word is read as sacred. This is the end which divine providence has pursued in the preservation and in the dispersal of the Jews over much of the world. On the nature of their lot after death see Continuation about the Last Judgment and the Spiritual World (n. 79-82).


261. These then are the objections listed above at n. 238 by which the natural man confirms himself against divine providence, or may do so. Still other objections, listed at n. 239, may serve the natural man for arguments against divine providence; they may occur to the minds of others, too, and excite doubts. They are the following.


262. Doubt may be raised against divine providence in that the whole of Christendom worships one God under three persons, that is, three Gods, and has not known hitherto that God is one in person and in essence, in whom is the trinity, and that this God is the Lord. One who reasons about divine providence may ask, Are not three persons three Gods if each person by himself is God? Who can think of it otherwise? In fact, who does? Athanasius himself could not; therefore it is said in the creed which bears his name:


Although in Christian verity we ought to acknowledge each Person as God and Lord, yet by Christian faith it is not allowable to affirm or to name three Gods or three Lords.


This can only mean that we ought to acknowledge three Gods and Lords, but it is not allowable to affirm or name three Gods and three Lords.


[2] Who can possibly have a perception of one God unless he is one in person? If it is said that such a concept is possible if one thinks of the three as having one essence, does one, indeed can one, have any other idea than that they are thus of one mind and agree, and yet are three Gods? Thinking more deeply, one asks oneself, How can the divine essence, which is infinite, be divided? Further, how can divine essence from eternity beget another and produce still another who proceeds from them both? It may be said that it is to be believed and not thought about; but who does not think about what he is told must be believed? How else can there be any acknowledgment which in its essence is faith? Was it not because of the concept of God as three persons that Socinianism and Arianism arose, which prevail in the hearts of more persons than you suppose? Belief in one God and that this God is the Lord makes the church, for in him is the divine trinity. The truth of this may be seen in Doctrine of the New Jerusalem about the Lord, from beginning to end.


[3] But what is thought of the Lord today? Is it not thought that he is God and Man, God from Jehovah the Father of whom he was conceived and Man from the Virgin Mary from whom he was born? Who thinks that God and Man in him, or his Divine and his human, are one person, and are one as soul and body are? Does anyone know this? Ask the learned in the church and they will say that they have not known it. Yet it is part of the doctrine of the church received throughout Christendom, as follows:


Our Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God, is God and Man; and although he is God and Man yet there are not two, but there is one Christ. He is one because the divine took to itself the human; indeed he is altogether one, for he is one Person, since as soul and body make one man, so God and Man is one Christ.


This comes from the faith or creed of Athanasius. The learned have not known it because on reading this they have thought of the Lord not as God but only as man.


[4] When they are asked if they know from whom the Lord was conceived, whether from God the Father or from his own Divine, they reply that he was conceived from God the Father, for this is according to Scripture. Are the Father and he not one then, like soul and body? Who can think that he was conceived from two divines, and if from his own that this was his Father? If you ask them further what their idea of the Lord’s Divine and of his human is, they will say that his Divine is from the essence of the Father and his human from the essence of his mother, and that his Divine is with the Father. Then, when they are asked where his human is, they have no answer, for they separate his Divine and his human in their thinking and make his Divine equal to the Divine of the Father and his human like the human of another man, unaware that in doing this they separate soul and body; nor do they see the flaw in this, that then a rational man would have been born from a mother alone.


[5] As a result of the fixed idea that the Lord’s humanity was like that of another man, it has come about that a Christian can with difficulty be led to think of a Divine human, even when it is said that the Lord’s soul or life from conception was and is Jehovah himself. Now sum up the reasons and consider whether there is any other God of the universe than the Lord alone, in whom is the Divine itself, source of all, called the Father; the Divine human, called the Son; and the proceeding Divine, called the Holy Spirit; and thus that God is one in person and essence, and that this God is the Lord.


[6] You may persist and remark that the Lord himself spoke of three in Matthew:


Go and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit (Matt. 28:19).


But it is plain from the preceding verse and the one following that the Lord said this in order to make it known that the divine trinity was in him, now glorified. For in the preceding verse he said that all power in heaven and on earth was given him, and in the following verse that he would be with men to the end of the age, speaking of himself alone and not of three.


[7] Now, why did divine providence permit Christians to worship the one God under three persons, that is, worship three Gods, and not know until now that God is one in essence and person, in whom is the trinity, and that this God is the Lord? Man and not the Lord was the cause. The Lord had taught it plainly in his Word, as is clear from all the passages cited in Doctrine of the New Jerusalem about the Lord, and has also taught it in the doctrine of all the churches, in which it is said that his Divine and his human are not two but one person united like soul and body.


[8] The first reason why men divided the Divine and the human and made the Divine equal to the Divine of Jehovah the Father and the human equal to the human of another man, was that the church after its rise fell away into Babylonianism. This took to itself the Lord’s divine power, and in order that it should be called human and not divine power made the Lord’s human like that of another man. When later the church was reformed and faith alone was received as the one means of salvation—faith that God the Father has mercy for the sake of the Son—the Lord’s human could be viewed in no other way. For no one can approach the Lord and acknowledge him at heart as God of heaven and earth unless he lives by his precepts. In the spiritual world, where everyone is bound to speak as he thinks, no one can so much as mention the name Jesus if he has not lived as a Christian in the world; this is by divine providence lest his name be profaned.


263. To make what has just been said clearer I will add what was set forth in Doctrine of the New Jerusalem about the Lord (towards the end, n. 60, 61), which is as follows:


“That God and man in the Lord, according to the creed, are not two but one person, altogether one as soul and body are, appears clearly in many sayings of the Lord, as that the Father and he are one; that all things of the Father are his and all his the Father’s; that he is in the Father and the Father in him; that all things are given into his hand; that he has all power; that he is God of heaven and earth; that one who believes on him has eternal life; and that the wrath of God abides on one who does not believe on him; and further, that both the Divine and the human were taken up into heaven; and that as to both he sits at the right hand of God, that is, is almighty; besides the numerous passages in the Word about his Divine human which were quoted abundantly above. They all testify that God is one both in person and in essence, and in him is the trinity, and that this God is the Lord.


[2] “These things about the Lord are published now for the first time because it is foretold in Revelation, chapters 21 and 22, that at the end of the former church a new church is to be established in which this will be the chief doctrine. This church is meant in those chapters by the New Jerusalem into which only one who acknowledges the Lord alone as God of heaven and earth can enter; this church is therefore called ‘the Lamb’s wife.’ I can also report that all heaven acknowledges the Lord alone and that one who does not is not admitted to heaven, for heaven is heaven from the Lord. This very acknowledgment made in love and faith causes men to be in the Lord and Lord in them, as he teaches in John:


In that day you will know that I am in my Father, and you in me and I in you (John 14:20);


Abide in me, and I in you . . . I am the vine, and you are branches; he who abides in me and I in him, bears much fruit; for without me you can do nothing; unless a man abides in me, he is cast out (John 15:4-6; 17:22, 23).


[3] “This has not been seen from the Word before, because if it had been, it would not have been received. For the last judgment had not been accomplished yet, and prior to it the power of hell prevailed over the power of heaven. Man is in the midst between heaven and hell; had this been seen before, therefore, the devil, that is, hell, would have plucked it from men’s hearts and furthermore would have profaned it. The predominance of hell was completely broken by the last judgment which has been accomplished now; since that judgment, thus today, every man who wishes enlightenment and wisdom is able to have it.”


264. A doubt may be raised against divine providence in that it has been unknown hitherto that in each particular of the Word there is a spiritual meaning from which it has its holiness. One may raise this doubt about divine providence, asking, “Why has this been revealed for the first time now, and why has it been revealed through anyone at all and not through a church leader?” But it is at the Lord’s good pleasure whether it should be a leader or a leader’s servant; he knows the one and the other. However, that sense of the Word has not been disclosed before because:


1. If it had been, the church would have profaned it and thereby profaned the holiness itself of the Word.


2. Neither were the genuine truths, in which the spiritual sense of the Word resides, revealed by the Lord until the last judgment was accomplished, and a new church, meant by the holy Jerusalem, was about to be established by the Lord.


These reasons will be examined separately.


[2] (1) The spiritual sense of the Word was not disclosed earlier because if it had been, the church would have profaned it and thereby would have profaned the holiness itself of the Word. Not long after it was established, the church was turned into Babylon, and later into Philistia. Babylon acknowledges the Word, to be sure, and yet esteems it lightly, asserting that the Holy Spirit inspires its own highest judgment just as much as it did the prophets. They acknowledge the Word for the vicarship founded on the Lord’s words to Peter, but esteem it lightly because it does not accord with their teaching. It is therefore taken from the people also and hidden in monasteries where few read it. If, therefore, the spiritual sense of the Word had been revealed, in which the Lord is present together with all angelic wisdom, the Word would have been profaned not only, as it is now, in its lowermost expression in the sense of the letter, but in its inmosts, too.


[3] Philistia, by which faith separated from charity is meant, would have profaned the spiritual sense of the Word also, because, as we have shown before, it puts salvation in certain formulas which are to be thought and spoken, and not in good works which are to be done. It thus makes saving what is not saving and also removes the understanding from what is to be believed. What would they do with the light in which the spiritual sense of the Word is? Would that not be turned into darkness? When the natural sense is, why not the spiritual sense? Does any one of them who has confirmed himself in faith separate from charity and in justification by this faith alone, want to know what good of life is, what love to the Lord and towards the neighbor is, what charity is and what the goods of charity are, what good works are and what it is to do them, or in fact what faith is essentially and what genuine truth is, constituting it? They compose volumes, establish in them only what they call faith, and declare that all the things just mentioned are present in that faith. It is clear from this that if the spiritual sense of the Word had been revealed earlier, it would come to pass according to the Lord’s words in Matthew:


If your eye is evil, your whole body will be full of darkness. If then the light that is in you is darkness, how great is that darkness (Matt. 6:23).


In the spiritual sense of the Word by “eye” the understanding is meant.


[4] (2) Neither were the genuine truths in which the spiritual sense of the Word resides, revealed by the Lord until after the last judgment was accomplished, and a new church, meant by the holy Jerusalem, was about to be established by the Lord. The Lord foretold in Revelation that after the last judgment was effected genuine truths were to be revealed, a new church was to be established, and the spiritual sense of the Word would be disclosed. In the small work, Last Judgment, and later in the continuation of that work, it was shown that the last judgment has been accomplished and that this is meant by the heaven and earth which would pass away (Rev. 21:1). That genuine truths are then to be revealed is foretold in these words in Revelation:


And he that sat upon the throne said, Behold, I make all things new (Rev. 11:5; also 19:17, 18; 21:18-21; 22:1, 2).


At Rev. 19:11-16 it was predicted that the spiritual sense of the Word was to be revealed; it is meant by “the white horse” on which he who sat was called the Word of God and was Lord of lords and King of kings (on this see the little work White Horse). That by the holy Jerusalem a new church is meant which was to be established then by the Lord may be seen in Doctrine of the New Jerusalem about the Lord (n. 62-65).


[5] It is clear, then, that the spiritual sense of the Word was to be revealed for a new church which should acknowledge and worship the Lord alone, hold his Word sacred, love divine truths and reject faith separated from charity. More about this sense of the Word may be seen in Doctrine of the New Jerusalem about Sacred Scripture (n. 5-26 and following paragraphs); what the spiritual sense of the Word is (n. 5-26); that a spiritual sense exists in all of the Word in general and in detail (n. 9-17); that by virtue of the spiritual sense the Word is divinely inspired and holy in every expression (n. 18, 19); that until now the spiritual sense has been unknown, and why it was not revealed before (n. 20-25); and that henceforth that sense will be open only to one who is in genuine truths from the Lord (n. 26).


[6] It may be evident from these propositions that it is by the Lord’s divine providence that the spiritual sense has lain concealed from the world until the present day and been kept meanwhile in heaven with the angels, who draw their wisdom from it. This sense was known and treasured among ancient peoples who lived before Moses, but when their descendants converted the correspondences, of which their Word and hence their religion solely consisted, into various idolatries, and the Egyptians converted them into magic, by the Lord’s divine providence this sense was closed up, first with the Israelites and then with Christians for the reasons given above, and is now opened for the first time for the Lord’s new church.


265. Doubt may arise against divine providence in that it has been unknown hitherto that to shun evils as sins is the Christian religion itself. That this is the Christian religion itself was shown in Doctrine of Life for the New Jerusalem, from beginning to end; and as faith separated from charity is the one obstacle to its being received, that also was treated of. We say that it has not been known that to shun evils as sins is the Christian religion itself, for it is unknown to nearly everyone; yet everyone does know it, as may be seen above (n. 258). Nearly all are ignorant of it because faith separate has obliterated knowledge of it. For this faith declares that it alone saves and not any good work, that is, any good of charity; also that men are no longer under the yoke of the law, but are free.


Those who have frequently heard such teaching no longer give thought to any evil of life or any good of life. Everyone, moreover, is inclined by nature to embrace such teaching, and once he has done so he no longer thinks about the state of his life. This is why it is not known that shunning evils as sins is the Christian religion itself.


[2] That this is unknown was disclosed to me in the spiritual world. I have asked more than a thousand newcomers from the world whether they knew that to shun evils as sins is religion itself. They said that they did not and that it was a new idea which they had not heard before, but had heard that they cannot of themselves do good and that they are not under the yoke of the law. When I inquired whether they knew that a man must examine himself, see his sins, repent, and begin a new life and that otherwise sins are not remitted, and if sins are not remitted, men are not saved; and when I reminded them that this was read out in a deep voice to them each time they observed the Holy Supper, they replied that they paid no attention to that but only to this, that they have remission of sins by the sacrament of the Supper and that faith effects the rest without their knowing it.


[3] I asked again, Why have you taught your children the Decalogue? Was it not that they might know what evils are sins to be shunned? Was it only that they might know and believe, but do nothing? Why is it said that this is new? To this they could only reply that they know and yet do not know, and that they never think of the sixth7 commandment when they commit adultery, or about the seventh when they steal or defraud secretly, and so on, and still less that such acts are contrary to divine law, thus contrary to God.


[4] When I recalled to them many things from the teachings of the churches and from the Word confirming the fact that to avoid and be averse to evils as sins is the Christian religion’s very self and that one who does so has faith, they fell silent. They were convinced of it, however, when they saw that all were examined as to their life and judged according to their deeds, and no one was judged according to faith apart from life, for everyone has faith according to his life.


[5] Christendom in large part has not known this because by a law of divine providence everyone is left to act in freedom according to reason (on this, above, n. 71-91 and n. 101-128); and by another law no one is taught directly from heaven but by means of the Word and by doctrine and preaching from it; there are besides all the laws on permission which are also laws of divine providence. On these see above, n. 258.


274.8 A doubt may be raised against divine providence in that it has not been known before that a man lives as a human being after death and that this has not been disclosed before. It has been unknown because with those who do not shun evils as sins the belief lies hidden that man does not live after death. It is of no moment therefore to them whether one says that man lives after death or will rise again on the day of the last judgment. If belief in resurrection happens to visit one, he tells himself, “I shall fare no worse than others; if I go to hell I shall have the company of many and also if I pass to heaven.” Yet all in whom there is any religion have an implanted recognition that they will live as human beings after death. Only those infatuated with their own intelligence think that they survive as souls but not as human beings.


It may be seen from the following that anyone in whom is any religion has an implanted recognition that he lives after death as a human being:


1. Who thinks otherwise when he is dying?


2. What eulogizer, mourning the dead, does not exalt them to heaven and place them among the angels conversing with them and sharing their joy? Some men are deified.


3. Who among the common people does not believe that when he dies, if he has lived well he will enter a heavenly paradise, be arrayed in white, and enjoy eternal life?


4. What priest does not speak so to the dying? And when he speaks so he believes it, provided he does not think of the last judgment at the time.


5. Who does not believe that his little ones are in heaven and that after death he will see his wife, whom he has loved? Who thinks that they are specters, still less souls or minds hovering in the universe?


6. Who contradicts when something is said about the lot or state of those who have passed from time into eternal life? I have told many what the state or lot of various persons is and have never heard anyone protest that their lot is not yet determined but will be at the time of the judgment.


7. When one sees angels in paintings or statuary does he not recognize them as such? Who thinks then that they are bodiless spirits or airy entities or clouds, as do some of the erudite?


8. Papists believe that their saints are human beings in heaven and others elsewhere are; so do Mohammedans of their dead; more than others Africans do, and many other peoples do. Why then do not Reformed Christians believe it, who know it from the Word?


9. Moreover, as a result of the recognition implanted in everyone, some men aspire to the immortality of renown. The recognition is given that turn in them and makes heroes and brave men of them in war.


10. Inquiry was made in the spiritual world whether this knowledge is implanted in all men; it was found that it is in a spiritual idea attached to their internal thought, not in a natural idea attached to their external thought.


It is plain from all this that doubt should not be thrown on the Lord’s divine providence on the supposition that only now has it been disclosed that the human being continues such after death. It is only the sensuous in man that wants to see and touch what is to be credited. One who does not raise his thinking above it is in the dark of night about the state of his own life.







Evils Are Tolerated in View of the End, Which Is Salvation



275. If man were born into the love for which he was created, he would not be in evil, in fact would not know what evil is. For one who has not been in evil and is not in it, cannot know what it is; told that this or that is evil, he would not believe it. This is the state of innocence in which Adam and his wife Eve were; that state was signified by the nakedness of which they were not ashamed; the knowledge of evil subsequent to the fall is meant by eating of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil. The love for which the human being was created is love to the neighbor, to wish him as well as one does oneself and even better. He is in the enjoyment of this love when he serves his neighbor quite as parents do their children. This is truly human love, for in it is what is spiritual, distinguishing it from the natural love of brute animals. Were man born into this love, he would not be born into the darkness of ignorance as everyone is now, but into some light of the knowledge and hence of the intelligence soon to be his. To be sure, he would creep on all fours at first but come erect on his feet by an implanted striving. However much he might resemble a quadruped, he would not face down to the ground but forward to heaven and come erect so that he could look up.


276. When love of the neighbor was turned into self-love, however, and this love increased, human love was turned into animal love, and man, from being man, became a beast, with the difference that he could think about what he sensed physically, could rationally discriminate among things, be taught, and become a civil and moral person and finally a spiritual being. For, as was said, man possesses what is spiritual and is distinguished by it from the brute animal. By it he can know what civil evil and good are, also what moral evil and good are, and if he so wills, what spiritual evil and good are also. When love for the neighbor was turned into self-love, however, man could no longer be born into the light of knowledge and intelligence but was born into the darkness of ignorance, being born on the lowest level of life, called corporeal-sensuous. From this he could be led into the interiors of the natural mind by instruction, the spiritual always attending on this. Why one is born on the lowest level of life known as corporeal-sensuous, therefore into the darkness of ignorance, will be seen in what follows.


[2] Anyone can see that love of the neighbor and self-love are opposites. Neighborly love wishes well to all from itself, but self-love wishes everyone to wish it well; neighborly love wants to serve everyone, but self-love wants all to serve it; love of the neighbor regards everyone as brother and friend, while love of self regards everyone as its servant, and if one does not serve it, as its enemy; in short, it regards only itself and others scarcely as human beings, esteeming them at heart less than one’s horses and dogs. Thinking so meanly of others, it thinks nothing of doing evil to them; hence come hatred and vengeance, adultery and whoredom, theft and fraud, lying and defamation, violence and cruelty, and similar evils. Such are the evils in which man is by birth. That they are tolerated in view of the end, which is salvation, is to be shown in this order:


1. Everyone is in evil and must be led away from it to be reformed.


2. Evils cannot be removed unless they appear.


3. So far as they are removed they are remitted.


4. The toleration of evil is therefore for the sake of the end in view, namely, salvation.


277a. (1) Everyone is in evil and must be led away from it to be reformed. The church knows that there is hereditary evil in man and that as a result he is in the lust of many evils. Thence it is that he cannot do good of himself, for evil does only such good as has evil in it; the evil inwardly in it is that one does good for one’s own sake and thus only for the sake of appearances. It is known that hereditary evil comes from one’s parents.


It is said to come from Adam and his wife, but this is an error; for everyone is born into hereditary evil from his parent, and the parent from his parent, and so on; thus it is transmitted from one to another, is augmented and becomes an accumulation, and is passed to one’s progeny. There is therefore nothing sound in man but all is evil. Who feels that it is evil to love himself above others? Who, then, knows that this is an evil, though it is the head of evils?


[2] Inheritance from parents, grandparents and great-grandparents is plain from much which is known in the world, from the fact, for instance, that households, families and even nations are distinguishable by the face; the face is also a type of the mind which in turn accords with the affections of one’s love. Sometimes, too, the features of a grandfather recur in a grandson or a great-grandson. From the face alone I know whether a person is a Jew or not; likewise of what stock certain persons are; others no doubt know also. If the affections which spring from love are thus derived from parents and transmitted by them, evils are, for these spring from affections. But it shall be told how the resemblance comes about.


[3] Everyone’s soul comes from his father and is only clothed with the body by one’s mother. That the soul is from the father follows not only from what has been said above, but from many other indications, too; also from this, that the child of a black man or Moor by a white or European woman is black, and vice versa; and especially in that the soul is in the seed, for impregnation is by the seed, and the seed is what is clothed with a body by the mother. The seed is the primal form of the love in which the father is—the form of his ruling love with its nearest derivatives or the inmost affections of that love.


[4] These affections are enveloped in everyone with the honesties of moral life and with the goodnesses partly of civil and partly of spiritual life, which are the external of life even with the evil. An infant is born into this external life and is therefore lovable, but coming to boyhood and adolescence he passes from that external to the inner life and at length to his father’s ruling love. If this has been evil and not been moderated and bent by various means by his teachers, it becomes his ruling love as it was his father’s. Still the evil is not eradicated, but put aside; of this in what follows. Plainly, then, everyone is in evil.


277b. It is plain without explanation that man must be led away from evil in order to be reformed. For one who is in evil in the world is in evil after he has left the world. Not removed in the world, evil cannot be removed afterwards. Where a tree falls, it lies. So, too, when a man dies his life remains such as it has been. Everyone is judged according to his deeds, not that these are recounted, but he returns to them and acts as before. Death is a continuation of life with the difference that man cannot then be reformed. For reformation is effected in full, that is, in what is inmost and outmost, and what is outmost is reformed suitably to what is inmost only while man is in the world. It cannot be reformed afterwards because as it is carried along by the man after death it falls quiescent and conforms to his inner life, that is, they act as one.


278a. (2) Evils cannot be removed unless they appear. This does not mean that man must do evils in order for them to appear, but that he must examine himself, his thoughts as well as his deeds, and see what he would do if he did not fear the laws and disrepute—see especially what evils he deems allowable in his spirit and does not regard as sins, for these he still does. To enable him to examine himself, man has been given understanding, and an understanding separate from his will, in order that he may know, comprehend, and acknowledge what is good and what is evil, likewise see the character of his will or what it loves and desires. To see this his understanding has been given higher and lower or interior and exterior thought, so as to see from the higher or interior what his will prompts in the lower or exterior thinking; he sees this quite as he does his face in a mirror. When he does and knows what is sin, he is able, on imploring the Lord’s help, not to will it but to shun it, then to act contrary to it, if not freely, then by overcoming it through fighting it, and finally to become averse to it and abominate it. Then first does he perceive and also sense that evil is evil and good is good. This, now, is self-examination—to see one’s evils, acknowledge them, confess them, and thereupon desist from them.


[2] But as few know that this is the Christian religion itself, and these alone have charity and faith and are led by the Lord and do good from him, something will be said of those who fail to examine themselves but still think that they possess religion. They are:


a. Those who confess themselves guilty of all sins but do not search out any one sin in themselves.


b. Those who neglect the search on religious principle.


c. Those who in absorption with the mundane give no thought to sins and hence do not know them.


d. Those who favor them and therefore cannot know them.


e. With all these, sins do not appear and therefore cannot be removed.


f. Finally, the reason, so far unknown, will be made plain why evils cannot be removed apart from their being searched out, appearing, being acknowledged, confessed and resisted.


278b. But these points will be considered one by one, for they are fundamentals of the Christian religion on man’s part.


(a) Of those who confess themselves guilty of all sins, but do not search out any one sin in themselves. They say, “I am a sinner. I was born in sin. From head to foot there is nothing sound in me. I am nothing but evil. Good God, be gracious to me, pardon, cleanse and save me. Make me to walk in purity and in a right path”; and more of the kind. And yet the man does not examine himself and hence does not know any evil, and no one can shun what he is ignorant of, still less fight against it.


After his confessions he also thinks that he is clean and washed, when nevertheless he is unclean and unwashed from the head to the sole of the foot. For the confession of all sins is the lulling of them all to sleep and finally blindness to them. It is like a generality devoid of anything specific, which amounts to nothing.


[2] (b) Those who omit the search in consequence of their religion. They are especially those who separate charity from faith. They say to themselves, “Why should I search out evil or good? Why evil, when it does not condemn me? Why good, when it does not save me? Faith alone, thought and uttered with trust and confidence, justifies and purifies from all sin, and when once I am justified, I am whole in the sight of God. I am indeed in evil, but God wipes it away the moment it is committed and it no longer appears”; and much else. But who does not see, if he opens his eyes, that these are empty words, without reality, because nothing of good is in them? Who cannot think and speak so, with trust and confidence, too, even when he is thinking of hell and eternal condemnation? Does he want to know anything further about either truth or good? Of truth he says, “What is truth except that which confirms this faith?” and of good, “What is good except what is in me from this faith? And that it may be in me I will not do it as from myself, for that would be self-righteous and what is self-righteous is not good.” So he neglects all until he does not know what evil is; what then is he to search out and see in himself? Is it not his state then that a pent-up fire of lusts of evil consumes the interiors of his mind and lays them waste even to the entrance? He is on guard only at the door to keep the fire from appearing. After death the door is opened and the fire appears for all to see.


[3] (c) Those absorbed with the mundane give no thought to sins, hence do not know of any. These love the world above all things and welcome no truth that would lead them away from any falsity in their religion. They tell themselves, “What is this to me? It is not to my way of thinking.” So they reject truth on hearing it and if they listen to it smother it. They do much the same on hearing sermons; they retain some sayings but not any of the substance. Dealing in this way with truths they do not know what good is, for truth and good act as one; and from good which is not linked with truth one does not recognize evil except as one calls it good also, which is done by rationalizing from falsities. It is these who are meant by the seed which fell among thorns, of whom the Lord said:


Other seeds fell among thorns; and the thorns sprang up and choked them . . . These are they who hear the Word, but the cares of this world and the deceitfulness of riches choke the Word, so that it becomes unfruitful (Matt. 13:7, 22; Mark 4:7, 18, 19; Luke 8:7, 14).


[4] (d) Those who favor sins and therefore cannot know them. These acknowledge God and worship him with the usual ceremonials and assure themselves that a given evil, which is a sin, is not a sin. For they color it with fallacies and appearances and thus hide its enormity. Then they indulge it and make it their friend and familiar. We say that those who acknowledge God do this, for others do not regard an evil as a sin, for one sins against God. But let examples illustrate this. A man makes an evil not to be a sin when in coveting wealth he makes some kinds of fraud allowable by reasoning which he devises. So does the man who confirms himself in plundering those who are not his enemies in a war.


[5] (e) Sins do not appear in these men, therefore cannot be removed. All evil which does not come to sight nurses itself; it is like fire in wood under ashes or like matter in an unopened wound; for all evil which is repressed increases and does not stop until it destroys all. Lest evil be repressed, therefore, everyone is allowed to think in favor of God or against God and in favor of the sanctities of the church or against them, without being punished for it in the world. Of this the Lord says in Isaiah:


From the sole of the foot even to the head there is no soundness; wound, and scar, and fresh bruise; they have not been pressed out, nor bound up, nor softened with oil Wash you, make you clean, remove the evil of your doings from before my eyes; cease to do evil, learn to do good Then if your sins have been as scarlet, they shall be white as snow; if they have been red like crimson, they shall be like wool But if you refuse and rebel, you shall be devoured by the sword (Isa. 1:6, 16, 17, 18, 20).


To be devoured by the sword signifies to perish by falsity of evil.


[6] (f) The cause, hidden so far, why evils cannot be removed apart from their being searched out, appearing, being acknowledged, confessed, and resisted. In preceding pages we have mentioned the fact that all heaven is arranged in societies according to affections of good, and all hell in societies according to the lusts of evil opposite to the affections of good. Each person as to his spirit is in some society, in a heavenly one if in an affection of good, but in an infernal one if in some lust of evil. While living in the world man does not know this and yet as to his spirit he is in some society; otherwise he cannot live; and by it he is governed by the Lord. If he is in an infernal society, he cannot be led out of it by the Lord except according to the laws of divine providence, among which is this also, that a man shall see that he is there, want to leave, and make the effort himself to do so. One can do this while in the world but not after death, for then he remains forever in the society in which he put himself in the world.


It is for this reason that man is to examine himself, see and avow his sins, do repentance, and thereupon persevere to the close of life. I might substantiate this to full belief by much experience, but this is not the place to document the experience.


279. (3) So far as evils are removed they are remitted. It is an error of the age to believe:


a. That evils are separated and in fact cast out from man when they are remitted; and


b. That the state of man’s life can be changed in a moment, even to its opposite, so that from wicked he becomes good, and consequently can be led from hell and be transported straightway to heaven, and this by the Lord’s sheer mercy.


c. But those who believe and suppose so, do not know at all what evil and good are and nothing at all about the state of man’s life.


d. Moreover, they are wholly unaware that affections, which are of the will, are nothing other than changes and variations of the state of the purely organic substances of the mind; and that thoughts, which are of the understanding, also are; and that memory is the permanent state of these changes.


When one knows these things, one can see clearly that an evil can be removed only by successive stages, and that the remission of an evil is not complete removal of it. But all this has been said in summary form and unless the items are demonstrated may be assented to and yet not comprehended. What is not comprehended is as indistinct as a wheel spun around by the hand. The points made above are therefore to be demonstrated one by one in the order in which they were set forth.


[2] (a) It is an error of the age to believe that evils are separated and in fact cast out when they are remitted. It has been granted me to learn from heaven that no evil into which man is born and which he has made actual in him is separated from him, but is removed so as not to appear. Earlier I shared the belief of most persons in the world that when evils are remitted they are cast out and are washed and wiped away as dirt is from the face by water. It is not like this with evils or sins. They all remain.


When they are remitted on repentance, they are thrust from the center to the sides. What is in the center, being directly under view, appears as in the light of day, and what is to one side is in shadow and at times in the darkness of night. Inasmuch as evils are not separated but only removed, that is, thrust to one side, and as man can go from the center to the periphery, he can return, as it may happen, to his evils, which he supposed had been cast out. For the human being is such that he can go from one affection to another and sometimes to the opposite, and thus from one center into another; the affection in which he is at the time makes the center, for he is then in the enjoyment and light of it.


[3] Some who are raised after death into heaven by the Lord, for they have lived well, have carried with them, however, the belief that they are clean and rid of sins, therefore are not in a state of guilt. In accord with their belief they are clothed at first in white garments, for white garments signify a state purified from evils. But after a time they begin to think, as they did in the world, that they are washed, as it were, from all evil, and to glory that they are no longer sinners like other men. This can hardly be kept from being an elation of mind and a contempt of others in comparison with oneself. In order, therefore, that they may be delivered from their imaginary belief, they are sent down from heaven and let back into the evils which they pursued in the world; they are also shown that they are in hereditary evils of which they had not known. When they have been led in this way to realize that their evils have not been separated from them but only put aside, thus that in themselves they are impure, indeed nothing but evil, and that they are withheld from evils and held in goods by the Lord, and that this only seems to be their doing, they are raised again into heaven by the Lord.


[4] (b) It is an error of the age to believe that the state of man’s life can be changed in a moment, so that from wicked he can become good, and consequently can be led from hell and transported at once to heaven, and this by the Lord’s direct mercy. Those who separate charity and faith and place salvation in faith alone, commit this error. For they suppose that merely to think and speak formulas of that faith, if it is done with trust and confidence, justifies and saves one. Many think it is done instantly, too, and if not previously, can be done in the last hour of one’s life. These are bound to believe that the state of man’s life can be changed in a moment and that he can be saved by direct mercy. But in the last chapter of this treatise it will be seen that the Lord’s mercy is mediated, that man cannot become good in a moment from being wicked, and can be led from hell and transported to heaven only by the continual activity of divine providence from infancy to the very close of life. Here it need only be said that all the laws of divine providence have the salvation and reformation of the human being for their object, in other words, the inversion of his state, which by nativity is infernal, into the opposite, which is heavenly. This can only be done progressively as man recedes from evil and its enjoyment and comes into good and its enjoyment.


[5] (c) Those who believe in an instantaneous change do not know at all what evil and good are. For they do not know that evil is the enjoyment of the lust of acting and thinking contrary to divine order, and good is the enjoyment of the affection for acting and thinking in accord with divine order. They do not know, either, that myriads of lusts enter into and compose each individual evil and myriads of affections enter into and compose each individual good, and that these myriads are in such order and connection in man’s interiors that it is impossible to change one without changing all at the same time.


Those who are ignorant of this may believe or suppose that evil, which seems to them to be a single entity, can be easily removed, and that good, which also seems to be a single entity, can be introduced in its place. Not knowing what evil and good are, they cannot but suppose that there is such a thing as instantaneous salvation and such a thing as direct mercy. That these are not possible will be seen in the last chapter of this treatise.


[6] (d) Those who believe in instantaneous salvation and unmediated mercy do not know that affections, which are of the will, are nothing other than changes of state in the purely organic substances of the mind; that thoughts, which are of the understanding, are nothing other than changes and variations in the form of those substances; and that memory is the persisting state of the changes and variations.


Everyone acknowledges, on its being said, that affections and thoughts exist only in substances and their forms, which are the subjects; existing in the brain which is full of substances and forms, they are called purely organic forms. No one who thinks rationally can help laughing at the fancies of some that affections and thoughts do not have substantive bases, but are exhalations given shape by heat and light, like images apparently in the air or ether. For thought can no more exist apart from a substantial form than sight can apart from its form, the eye, or hearing apart from its form, the ear, or taste apart from its form, the tongue. If you examine the brain, you will see innumerable substances and fibers, also, and see, too, that everything in it is organized. What more is needed than this ocular proof?


[7] But one may ask, What are affection and thought then? A conclusion can be reached from each and all things in the body. In it are many viscera, each fixed in its place, and all performing their several functions by changes and variations of state and form. It is well known that they are engaged in their own activities—the stomach, the intestines, the kidneys, the liver, the pancreas, the spleen, the heart and the lungs, each in its particular activity. All the activities are maintained from within, and to be actuated from within means that it is by changes and variations of state and form. It may be plain then that the activities of the purely organic substances of the mind are similar, the only difference being that those of the organic substances of the body are natural, but of the mind are spiritual; plainly, also, the two make one by correspondences.


[8] The nature of the changes and variations of state and form in the organic substances of the mind, which are affections and thoughts, cannot be shown to the eye. It may, however, be seen as in a mirror by the changes of state in the lungs on speaking and singing. There is correspondence, moreover; for the sound of the voice in speaking and singing, and the articulations of the sound which are the words of speech and the modulations of song, are produced by means of the lungs; sound corresponds to affection, and speech to thought. Sound and speech are produced also from affection and thought. This is done by changes and variations in the state and form of the organic substances of the lungs, and from the lungs through the trachea or windpipe in the larynx and glottis, and then in the tongue, and finally in the lips. The first changes and variations in the state and form of the sound occur in the lungs, the second in trachea and larynx, the third in the glottis by the different openings of its orifice, the fourth in the tongue by its various positions against palate and teeth, and the fifth in the lips by the various modifications of form in them.


It may be evident, then, that these consecutive changes and variations in the state of organic forms produce the sounds and their articulations which are speech and song. Inasmuch, then, as sound and speech are produced from no other source than the affections and thoughts of the mind (for they exist from them and are never apart from them), clearly the affections of the will are changes and variations in the state of the purely organic substances of the mind, and the thoughts of the understanding are changes and variations in the form of those substances, quite like those in the substances of the lungs.


[9] Since affections and thoughts are simply changes of state in the forms of the mind, memory is nothing other than the permanent state of those changes. For all changes and variations of state in organic substances are such that once they are habitual they become permanent. So the lungs are habituated to produce certain sounds in the trachea, to vary them in the glottis, articulate them by the tongue, and modify them by the mouth; once these organic activities have become habitual, they are settled in the organs and can be reproduced. These changes and variations are infinitely more perfect in the organs of the mind than in those of the body, as is evident from what was said in the treatise Divine Love and Wisdom (n. 199-204), where we showed that all perfections increase and ascend by and according to degrees. More on this will be seen below (n. 319).


280. It is also an error of the age to suppose that when sins are remitted they are taken away. This is the error of those who believe that their sins are pardoned by the sacrament of the Holy Supper although they have not removed them from themselves by repentance. Those also commit this error who believe that they are saved by faith alone; those also who believe that they are saved by papal dispensations. All these believe in unmediated mercy and instant salvation. But when the statement is reversed it becomes truth, that is, when sins are removed they are also remitted. For repentance precedes pardon, and aside from repentance there is no pardon. Therefore the Lord bade his disciples:


That they should preach repentance for the remission of sins (Luke 24:27, 47),


and John preached:


The baptism of repentance for the remission of sins (Luke 3:3).


The Lord remits the sins of all; he does not accuse and impute; but he can take sins away only in accordance with laws of his divine providence. For when Peter asked how often he was to forgive a brother sinning against him, whether seven times, the Lord said to him:


That he should forgive not only seven times, but seventy times seven (Matt. 18:21, 22).


What then will the Lord not do, who is mercy itself?


281. (4) Thus the permission of evil is for the sake of the end, namely, salvation. It is well known that man has full liberty to think and will but not to say and do whatever he thinks and wills. He may think as an atheist, deny God, and blaspheme the sanctities of Word and church. He may even want to destroy them utterly by word and deed, but this is prevented by civil, moral, and ecclesiastical laws. He therefore cherishes this impiety and wickedness inwardly by thinking, willing, and even intending to do it, but not doing it actually. The man who is not an atheist also has full liberty to think many evil things, things fraudulent, lascivious, revengeful, and otherwise insane; he also does them at times. Who can believe that unless man had full liberty, he not only could not be saved but would even perish utterly?


[2] Now let us have the reason for this. Everyone from birth is in evils of many kinds. They are in his will, and what is in the will is loved. For what a man wills inwardly he loves, what he loves he wills, and the will’s love flows into the understanding where it makes its pleasure felt and thereupon enters the thoughts and intentions. If, therefore, he were not allowed to think in accord with the love in his will, which is hereditarily implanted in him, that love would remain shut in and never be seen by him.


A love of evil which does not become apparent is like an enemy in ambush, like matter in an ulcer, like poison in the blood, or corruption in the breast, which cause death when they are kept shut in. But when a person is permitted to think the evils of his life’s love, even to intend doing them, they are cured by spiritual means as diseases are by natural means.


[3] It will be told now what man would be like if he were not permitted to think in accord with the enjoyment of his life’s love. No longer would he be man, for he would lose his two faculties called liberty and rationality in which humanness itself consists. The enjoyment of those evils would occupy the interiors of his mind to such an extent that it would burst open the door. He could then only speak and commit the evils; his unsoundness would be manifest not only to himself but to the world; and at length he would not know how to cover his shame. In order that he may not come into this state, he is permitted to think and to will the evils of his inherited nature but not to say and commit them. Meanwhile he is learning civil, moral, and spiritual things. These enter his thoughts and remove the unsoundness and he is healed by the Lord by means of them, only to the extent, however, of knowing how to guard the door unless he also acknowledges God and implores his aid for power to resist the unsoundness. Then, so far as he resists it, he does not let it into his intentions and eventually not even into his thoughts.


[4] Since man is free to think as he pleases to the end that his life’s love may emerge from its hiding place into the light of his understanding, and since he would not otherwise know anything of his own evil and consequently would not know how to shun it, it is also true that it would increase in him so much that recovery would become impossible in him and hardly be possible in his children, were he to have children, for a parent’s evil is transmitted to his offspring. The Lord, however, provides that this may not occur.


282. The Lord could heal the understanding in every man and thus cause him to think not evil but good, and this by means of fears of different kinds, miracles, conversations with the dead, or visions and dreams. But to heal the understanding alone is to heal man only outwardly, for understanding with its thought is the external of man’s life while the will with its affection is the internal. The healing of the understanding alone would therefore be like palliative healing in which the interior malignity, closed in and kept from issuing, would destroy first the near and then the remote parts till all would become mortified. The will itself must be healed, not by the influx of the understanding into it, for that is impossible, but by means of instruction and exhortation from the understanding. Were the understanding alone healed, man would become like a dead body embalmed or covered by fragrant spices and roses which would soon get such a foul odor from the body that they could not be brought near anyone’s nostrils. So heavenly truths in the understanding would be affected if the evil love of the will were shut in.


283. Man is permitted, as was said, to think evils even to intending them in order that they may be removed by means of what is civil, moral and spiritual. This is done when he considers that they are contrary to what is just and equitable, to what is honest and decorous and to what is good and true, contrary therefore to the peace, joy and blessedness of life. By these three means the Lord heals the love of man’s will, in fear at first, it is true, but with love later. Still the evils are not separated from the man and cast out, but only removed in him and put to the side.


When they are and good has the center, evils do not appear, for whatever has the central place is squarely under view and is seen and perceived. It should be known, however, that even when good occupies the center man is not for that reason in good unless the evils at the side tend downward or outward. If they look upward or inward they have not been removed, but are still trying to return to the center. They tend downward and outward when man shuns his evils as sins and still more when he holds them in aversion, for then he condemns them, consigns them to hell, and makes them face that way.


284. Man’s understanding is the recipient of both good and evil and of both truth and falsity, but not his will. His will must be either in evil or in good; it cannot be in both, for it is the man himself and in it is his life’s love. But good and evil are separate in the understanding like what is internal and what is external. Thus man may be inwardly in evil and outwardly in good. Still, when he is being reformed, the two meet, and conflict and combat ensue. This is called temptation when it is severe, but when it is not severe a fermentation like that of wine or strong drink occurs. If good conquers, evil with its falsity is carried to the side, as lees, to use an analogy, fall to the bottom of a vessel. The good is like wine that becomes generous on fermentation and like strong drink which becomes clear. But if evil conquers, good with its truth is borne to the side and becomes turbid and noisome like unfermented wine or unfermented strong drink. Comparison is made with ferment because in the Word, as at Hos. 7:4, Luke 12:1, and elsewhere, “ferment” signifies falsity of evil.







Divine Providence Deals Impartially with the Evil and the Good



285. In every person, good or bad, there are two faculties, one of which makes the understanding and the other the will. The faculty making the understanding is the ability to understand and think, therefore is called rationality. The faculty making the will is the ability to do this freely, that is, to think and consequently to speak and act also, provided that it is not contrary to reason or rationality; for to act freely is to act as often as one wills and according as one wills.


The two faculties are constant and are present from first to last in each and all things which a man thinks and does. He has them not from himself, but from the Lord. It follows that the Lord’s presence in these faculties is also in the least things, indeed the very least, of man’s understanding and thought, of his will and affection too, and thence of his speech and action. If you remove these faculties from even the very least thing, you will not be able to think or utter it as a human being.


[2] It has already been shown abundantly that the human being is a human being by virtue of the two faculties, enabled by them to think and speak, and to perceive goods and understand truths, not only such as are civil and moral but also such as are spiritual, and made capable, too, of being reformed and regenerated; in a word, made capable of being conjoined to the Lord and thereby of living forever. It was also shown that not only good men but evil also possess the two faculties. These faculties are in man from the Lord and are not appropriated to him as his, for what is divine cannot be appropriated but only adjoined to him and thus appear to be his, and this which is divine with the human being is in the least things pertaining to him. It follows that the Lord governs the least things in an evil man as well as in a good man. This government of his is what is called divine providence.


286. Inasmuch as it is a law of divine providence that man shall act from freedom according to reason, that is, from the two faculties, liberty and rationality; and a law of divine providence that what he does shall appear to be from himself and thus his own; and also a law that evils must be permitted in order that man may be led out of them, it follows that man can abuse these faculties and in freedom according to reason confirm whatever he pleases. He can make reasonable whatever he will, whether it is reasonable in itself or not. Some therefore ask, “What is truth? Can I not make true whatever I will?” Does not the world do so? Anybody can do it by reasoning.


Take an utter falsity and bid a clever man confirm it, and he will. Tell him, for instance, to show that man is a beast, or that the soul is like a small spider in its web and governs the body as that does by threads, or tell him that religion is nothing but a restraining bond, and he will prove any one of these propositions until it appears to be truth. What is more easily done? For he does not know what appearance is or what falsity is which in blind faith is taken for truth.


[2] Hence it is that a man cannot see this truth, namely, that divine providence is in the very least things of the understanding and the will, or what is the same, in the very least things of the thoughts and affections of every person, wicked or good. He is perplexed especially because it seems then that evils are also from the Lord, but it will be seen in what follows that nevertheless there is not a particle of evil from the Lord but that evil is from man in that he confirms in him the appearance that he thinks, wills, speaks and acts of himself. In order that these things may be seen clearly, they will be demonstrated in this order:


1. Divine providence is universal in the least things with the evil as well as the good, and yet is not in one’s evils.


2. The evil are continually leading themselves into evils, but the Lord is continually leading them away from evils.


3. The evil cannot be fully withdrawn from evil and led in good by the Lord so long as they believe their own intelligence to be everything and divine providence nothing.


4. The Lord rules hell through opposites; and rules the evil who are in the world, in hell as to their interiors, but not as to their exteriors.


287. (1) Divine providence is universal in the least things with the evil as well as the good, and yet is not in one’s evils. It was shown above that divine providence is in the least things of man’s thoughts and affections. This means that man can think and will nothing from himself, but that everything he thinks and wills and consequently says and does, is from influx. If it is good, it is from influx out of heaven, and if evil, from influx out of hell; or what is the same, the good is from influx from the Lord and the evil from man’s proprium. I know that it is difficult to grasp this, because what flows in from heaven or from the Lord is distinguished from what flows in from hell or from man’s proprium, and yet divine providence is said to be in the least of man’s thoughts and affections, even so far that he can think and will nothing from himself. It appears like a contradiction to say that he can also think and will from hell and from his proprium. Yet it is not, and this will be seen in what follows, after some things have been premised which will clarify the matter.


288. All the angels of heaven confess that no one can think from himself but does so from the Lord, while all the spirits of hell say that no one can think from any other than himself. These spirits have been shown many times that no one of them thinks or can think from himself, but that thought flows in; it was in vain, however; they would not accept the idea. But experience will teach, first, that everything of thought and affection even with spirits of hell flows in from heaven, but that the inflowing good is turned into evil there and truth into falsity, thus everything into its opposite.


This was shown in this way: a truth from the Word was sent down from heaven, was received by those uppermost in hell, and by them sent to lower hells, and on to the lowest. On the way it was turned by stages into falsity and finally into falsity the direct opposite of the truth. Those with whom it was so changed thought the falsity of themselves seemingly and knew no otherwise; still it was truth, flowing down from heaven on the way to the lowest hell, which was thus falsified and perverted. I have heard of this several times. The same thing occurs with good; as it flows down from heaven, it is changed step by step into the evil opposite to it. Hence it was plain that truth and good, proceeding from the Lord and received by those who are in falsity and evil, are completely altered and so transformed that their first form is lost. The like happens in every evil person, for as to his spirit he is in hell.


289. I have often been shown that no one in hell thinks from himself but through others around him, and these do not, but through others still. Thoughts and affections make their way from one society to another, but no one is aware that they do not originate with himself. Some who believed that they thought and willed of themselves were dispatched to another society and held there, and communication was cut off with the societies around to which their thoughts usually extended. Then they were told to think differently from the spirits of this society, and compel themselves to think to the contrary; they confessed that they could not.


[2] This was done with a number and with Leibnitz, too, who was also convinced that no one thinks from himself, but from others, nor do these think from themselves, but all think by an influx from heaven, and heaven by an influx from the Lord. Some, pondering this, said that it was amazing, and that hardly anyone can be led to credit it, for it is utterly contrary to the appearance, but that they still could not deny it, for it was fully demonstrated. Nevertheless, astonished as they were, they said that they are not at fault then in thinking evil; also that it seems then as if evil is from the Lord; and, again, that they do not understand how the one Lord can cause all to think so diversely. The three points will be explained in what follows.


290. To the experiences cited this is also to be added. When it was granted me by the Lord to speak with spirits and angels, the foregoing arcanum was at once disclosed to me. For I was told from heaven that like others I believed that I thought and willed from myself, when in fact nothing was from myself, but if it was good, it was from the Lord, and if evil from hell. That this was so, was shown me to the life by various thoughts and affections which were induced on me, and gradually I was given to perceive and feel it. Therefore, as soon as an evil afterwards entered my will or a falsity into my thought, I investigated the source of it. I inquired from whom it came.


This was disclosed to me, and I was also allowed to speak with those spirits, refute them, and compel them to withdraw, thus to take back their evil and falsity and keep it to themselves, and no longer infuse anything of the kind into my thought. This has occurred a thousand times. I have remained in this state for many years, and still do. Yet I seem to myself to think and will from myself like others, with no difference, for of the Lord’s providence it should so appear to everyone, as was shown above in the section on it. Newly arriving spirits wonder at this state of mine, seeing as they do only that I do not think and will from myself, and am therefore like some empty thing. But I disclosed the arcanum to them, and added that I also think more interiorly, and perceive whether what flows into my exterior thought is from heaven or from hell, reject the latter and welcome the former, yet seem to myself, like them, to be thinking and willing from myself.


291. It is not unknown in the world that all good is from heaven and all evil from hell; it is known to everyone in the church. Who that has been inaugurated into the church’s priesthood does not teach that all good is from God, and that man can receive nothing of himself except it be given him from heaven? And also that the devil infuses evils into the thoughts and leads astray and incites one to commit evils?


Therefore a priest who believes that he preaches out of a holy zeal, prays that the Holy Spirit may teach him, and guide his thoughts and utterances. Some say that they have sensibly perceived being acted upon, and when a sermon is praised, reply piously that they have spoken not from themselves but from God. Therefore when they see someone speak and act well, they remark he was led to do so by God; on the other hand, seeing someone speak and act wickedly, they remark he was led to do so by the devil. That there is talk of the kind in the church is known, but who believes that it is so?


292. Everything that a man thinks and wills, and consequently speaks and does, flows in from the one fountain of life, and yet that one fountain of life, namely, the Lord, is not the cause of man’s thinking what is evil and false. This may be clarified by these facts in the world of nature. Heat and light proceed from the sun of the world. They flow into all visible subjects and objects, not only into subjects that are good and objects that are beautiful, but also into subjects that are evil and objects that are ugly, producing varying effects in them. They flow not only into trees that bear good fruit but into trees that bear bad fruit, and into the fruits themselves, quickening their growth. They flow into good seed and into weeds, into shrubs which have a good use and are wholesome, and into shrubs that have an evil use and are poisonous. Yet it is the same heat and the same light; there is no cause of evil in them; the cause is in the recipient subjects and objects.


[2] The same warmth that hatches eggs in which a screech owl, a horned owl, and a viper lie acts as it does when it hatches those in which a dove, a bird of paradise and a swan lie. Put eggs of both sorts under the hen and they will be hatched by her warmth, which in itself is innocent of harm. What has the heat in common then with what is evil and noxious? The heat flowing into a marsh or a dunghill or into decaying or dead matter acts in the same way as it does when it flows into things flavorsome and fragrant, lush and living. Who does not see that the cause is not in the heat but in the recipient subject? The same light gives pleasing colors in one object and displeasing colors in another; indeed, it grows brighter in white objects and becomes dazzling, and dims in those verging on black and becomes dusky.


[3] There is what is similar in the spiritual world. There are heat and light in it from its sun, which is the Lord, and they flow from the sun into their subjects and objects. Now the subjects and objects are angels and spirits, in particular their volitional and mental life, and the heat is divine love going forth, and the light is divine wisdom going forth. The light and heat are not the cause of the different reception of them by one and another. For the Lord says:


He makes the sun to rise on the evil and the good, and sends rain on the just and the unjust (Matt. 5:45).


In the highest spiritual sense by the “sun” the divine love is meant, and by the “rain” the divine wisdom.


293. Let me add to this the view of the angels on will and understanding in man. This is that there cannot be a grain of will or of prudence in man that is his own. They say that if there were, neither heaven nor hell would continue in existence, and all mankind would perish. The reason they give is that myriads of human beings, as many as have been born since the creation of the world, constitute heaven and hell, of which the one is under the other in such an order that each is a unit, heaven one comely humanity, and hell one monstrous humanity. If the individual had a grain of will and intelligence of his very own, that unity could not exist, but would be torn apart. Upon this that divine form would perish, which can arise and remain only as the Lord is all in all and men are nothing besides.


A further reason, they say, is that to think and will actually from one’s own being is the divine itself, and to think and will from God, is the truly human. The very divine cannot be appropriated to anyone, for then man would be God. Bear the above in mind, and if you wish you will have confirmation of it by angels when on death you come into the spiritual world.


294. It was stated above (n. 289) that when some were convinced that no one thinks from himself but from others, nor the others from themselves, but all by influx through heaven from the Lord, they remarked in their astonishment that then (a) they are not at fault when they do evil, also that then (b) it seems evil comes from the Lord, nor (c) do they comprehend how the Lord can cause them all to think so differently. Since these three notions cannot but flow into the thoughts of those who regard effects only from effects and not from causes, they need to be taken up and explained by what causes them.


[2] (a) They are not at fault then in doing evil. For if all that a person thinks flows into him from others, the fault seems to be theirs from whom it comes. Yet the fault is the recipient’s, for he receives what inflows as his own and neither knows nor wants to know otherwise. For everyone wants to be his own, to be led by himself, and above all to think and will from himself; this is freedom itself, which appears as the proprium in which every person is. If he knew, therefore, that what he thinks and wills flows in from another, it would seem to him that he was bound and captive and no longer master of himself. All enjoyment in his life would thus perish, and finally his very humanness would perish.


[3] I have often seen this evidenced. It was granted some spirits to perceive and sense that they were being led by others. Thereupon they were so enraged that they were reduced almost to mental impotence. They said that they would rather be kept bound in hell than not to be allowed to think as they willed and to will as they thought. This they called being bound in their very life, which was harder and more intolerable than to be bound bodily. Not being allowed to speak and act as they thought and willed, they did not call being bound. For the enjoyment of civil and moral life, which consists in speaking and acting, itself restrains and at the same time mitigates that.


[4] Inasmuch as man does not want to know that he is led to think by others, but wants to think from himself and believes that he does so, it follows that he himself is at fault, nor can he throw off the blame so long as he loves to think what he thinks. If he does not love it, he breaks his connection with those from whom his thought flows. This occurs when he knows the thought is evil, therefore determines to avoid it and desist from it. He is then also taken by the Lord from the society in that evil and transferred to a society free of it. If, however, he recognizes the evil and does not shun it, fault is imputed to him, and he is responsible for the evil. Therefore, whatever a man believes that he does from himself is said to be done from the man, and not from the Lord.


[5] (b) It then seems as if evil is from the Lord. This may be thought to be the conclusion from what was shown above (n. 288), namely, that good flowing in from the Lord is turned into evil and truth into falsity in hell. But who cannot see that evil and falsity do not come of good and truth, therefore not from the Lord, but from the recipient subject or object which is in evil and falsity and which perverts and inverts what flows into it, as was amply shown above (n. 292). The source of evil and falsity in man has been pointed out frequently in the preceding pages.


Moreover, an experiment was made in the spiritual world with those who believed that the Lord could remove evils in the wicked and introduce good instead, thus move the whole of hell into heaven and save all. That this is impossible, however, will be seen towards the end of this treatise, where instantaneous salvation and unmediated mercy are to be treated of.


[6] (c) They do not comprehend how the one Lord can cause all to think so diversely. The Lord’s divine love is infinite, likewise his divine wisdom. An infinity of love and wisdom proceeds from him, flows in with all in heaven, thence with all in hell, and from heaven and hell with all in the world. Thinking and willing therefore cannot lack in anyone, for what is infinite is limitless. The infinite things that issue from the Lord flow in not only universally but also in least things. For the divine is universal by being in least things, and the divine in least things constitutes what is called universal, as was shown above, and the divine in something least is still infinite. Hence it may be evident that the one Lord causes each person to think and will according to the person’s nature and does so in accordance with laws of his providence. It was shown above (n. 46-69) and also in the treatise Divine Love and Wisdom (n. 17-22), that everything in the Lord, or proceeding from him, is infinite.


295. (2) The evil are continually leading themselves into evils, but the Lord is continually leading them away from evils. The nature of divine providence with the good is more readily comprehended than its nature with the evil. As the latter is now under consideration, it will be set forth in this order:


a. In every evil there are innumerable things.


b. An evil man of himself continually leads himself more and more deeply into his evils.


c. Divine providence with the evil is a continual tolerance of evil, to the end that there may be a continual withdrawal from it.


d. Withdrawal from evil is effected by the Lord in a thousand most secret ways.


296. In order, then, that divine providence with the evil may be seen clearly and therefore understood, the propositions just stated are to be explained in the order in which they were presented.


(a) In every evil there are innumerable things. To man’s sight an evil appears to be a single thing. Hatred does, and revenge, theft and fraud, adultery and whoredom, pride and presumption, and the rest. It is unknown that in every evil there are innumerable things, exceeding in number the fibers and vessels in the human body. For an evil man is a hell in least form, and hell consists of myriads and myriads of spirits, each of whom is in form like a man, but a monstrous one, in whom all the fibers and vessels are inverted. A spirit himself is an evil which appears to him as one thing, but in it are innumerable things, as numerous as the lusts of that evil. For everyone, from head to foot, is his own evil or his own good. Since an evil man is such, plainly he is one evil composed of countless different evils, all severally evils, and called lusts of evil. It follows that all these, one after another, must be cured and changed by the Lord for man to be reformed, and that it can be done only by the Lord’s divine providence, step by step from man’s first years to his last.


[2] Every lust of evil, when it is visually presented, appears in hell like some noxious creature, a serpent, a cockatrice, a viper, a horned owl, a screech owl, or some other; so do the lusts of evil in an evil man appear when he is viewed by angels. All these forms of lust must be changed one by one. The man himself, who appears as to his spirit like a monstrous man or devil, must be changed to appear like a comely angel, and each lust of evil changed to appear like a lamb or sheep or pigeon or turtle dove, as affections of good in angels appear in heaven when they are visually represented. Changing a serpent into a lamb, or a cockatrice into a sheep, or an owl into a dove, can be done only gradually, by uprooting evil together with its seed and implanting good seed in its place.


This can only be done, however, comparatively as is done in the grafting of trees, of which the roots with some of the trunk remain, but the engrafted branch turns the sap drawn through the old root into sap that produces good fruit. The branch to be engrafted in this instance is to be had only from the Lord, who is the tree of life; this is also in keeping with the Lord’s words in John 15:1-7.


[3] (b) An evil man from himself continually leads himself more deeply into his evils. He does so “from himself” because all evil is from man, for, as was said, he turns good, which is from the Lord, into evil. He leads himself more and more deeply into evil for the reason, essentially, that as he wills and commits evil, he enters more and more interiorly and also more and more deeply into infernal societies. Hence the enjoyment of evil increases, too, and occupies his thoughts until he feels nothing more agreeable. One who has entered more interiorly and deeply into infernal societies becomes like one bound by chains. So long as he lives in the world, however, he does not feel his chains; they seem to be made of soft wool or smooth silken threads. He loves them, for they titillate; but after death, from being soft, those chains become hard, and from being pleasant become galling.


[4] That the enjoyment of evil grows is known from thefts, robberies, plunderings, revenge, tyranny, lucre, and other evils. Who does not feel a heightening of enjoyment in them as he succeeds in them and practices them uninhibited? A thief, we know, feels such enjoyment in thefts that he cannot desist from them, and, a wonder, he loves one stolen coin more than ten that are given him. It would be similar with adultery, had it not been provided that the power to commit this evil decreases with the abuse, but with many there still remains the enjoyment of thinking and talking about it, and if nothing more, there is still the lust of touch.


[5] It is not known, however, that this heightening of enjoyment comes from a man’s entering into infernal societies more and more interiorly and deeply as he perpetrates evils from the will as well as from thought. If the evils are only in the thoughts, and not in the will, he is not yet in an infernal society having that evil; he enters it when the evils are also in the will. Then, if he also thinks the evil is contrary to the precepts of the Decalogue and regards these precepts as divine, he commits the evil of set purpose and by so doing plunges to a depth from which he can be brought out only by active repentance.


[6] It is to be understood that everyone as to his spirit is in the spiritual world, in one of its societies, an evil man in an infernal society and a good man in a heavenly society; sometimes, when in deep meditation one also appears there. Moreover, as sound and, along with it, speech spread on the air in the natural world, affection and thought with it spread among societies in the spiritual world; there is correspondence, too, affection corresponding to sound and thought to speech.


[7] (c) Divine providence with the evil is a continual tolerance of evil, to the end that there may be a continual withdrawal from it.


Divine providence with evil men is continual permission because only evil can issue from their life. For whether he is in good or in evil, man cannot be in both at once, nor by turns in one and the other unless he is lukewarm. Evil of life is not introduced into the will and through this into the thought by the Lord but by man, and this is named permission.


[8] Inasmuch as everything which an evil man wills and thinks is by permission, the question arises, what in this case divine providence is, which is said to be in the least things with every person, evil or good. It consists in this, that it exercises tolerance continually for the sake of its objective, and permits what helps to the end and nothing more. It constantly observes the evils that issue by permission, separates and purifies them, and rejects what is unsuitable and discharges it by unknown ways.


This is done principally in man’s interior will and through it in his interior thought. Divine providence also sees to it constantly that what must be rejected and discharged is not received again by the will, since all that is received by the will is appropriated to the man; what is received by the thought, but not by the will, is set aside and banished. Such is the constant divine providence with the evil; as was said, it is a continual tolerance of evil to the end that there may be continual withdrawal from it.


[9] Of these activities man knows scarcely anything, for he does not perceive them. The chief reason why he does not, is that the evils come from the lusts of his life’s love, and are not felt to be evils but enjoyments, to which one does not give thought. Who gives thought to the enjoyments of his love? His thought floats along in them like a skiff carried along by the current of a stream; and he perceives a fragrant air which he inhales with a deep breath. Only in one’s external thought does one have a sense of the enjoyments, but even in it he pays no attention to them unless he knows well that they are evil. More will be said on this in what follows.


[10] (d) Withdrawal from evil is effected by the Lord in a thousand most secret ways. Only some of these have been disclosed to me, and only the most general ones. For instance, the enjoyments of lusts, of which man knows nothing, are let by clusters and bundles into the interior thoughts of his spirit and thence into his exterior thoughts, where they appear in a feeling of pleasure, delight, or longing, and mingle with his natural and sensuous enjoyments. There the means to separation and purification and the ways of withdrawal and unburdening are to be found. The means are chiefly the enjoyments of meditation, thought, and reflection on ends that are uses. Such ends are as numerous as the particulars and details of one’s business or occupation. Just as numerous are the enjoyments of reflection on such an end as that one shall appear to be a civil and moral and also a spiritual person, no matter what interposes which is unenjoyable. These enjoyments, being those of one’s love in the external man, are the means to the separation, purification, expulsion, and withdrawal of the enjoyments of the lusts in the internal man.


[11] Take, for example, an unjust judge who regards gain or friendship as the end or use of his office. Inwardly he is constantly in those ends, but outwardly must act as one learned in the law and just. He is constantly in the enjoyment of meditation, thought, reflection, and intent to bend and turn a decision and adapt and adjust it so that it may still seem to be in conformity with the laws and resemble justice. He does not know that his inward enjoyment consists in craftiness, defrauding, deceit, clandestine theft, and many other evils, and that this enjoyment, made up of so many enjoyments of the lusts of evil, governs each and all things of his external thought, in which he enjoys appearing just and sincere. Into the external enjoyment the internal enjoyment is let down, the two are mingled as food is in the stomach, and thereupon the internal enjoyments are separated, purified, and withdrawn. Still this is true only of the more grievous enjoyments of the lusts of evil.


[12] For in an evil man the only separation, purification, and withdrawal possible is of the more grievous evils from the less grievous. In a good man, however, separation, purification, and withdrawal is possible not only of the more grievous evils but also of the less grievous. This is effected by the enjoyments of the affections of what is good and true, and of what is just and sincere, affections into which one comes so far as he regards evils as sins and therefore avoids and is averse to them, and still more as he fights against them. It is by these means that the Lord purifies all who are saved. He purifies them by external means also, such as fame and standing and sometimes wealth, but put into these means by the Lord are the enjoyments of affections of good and truth, by which they are directed and fitted to become enjoyments of love for the neighbor.


[13] If one saw the enjoyments of the lusts of evil assembled in some form, or perceived them distinctly by some sense, he would see and perceive that they are too numerous for definition. For hell in its entirety is nothing but the form of all the lusts of evil, and no one lust in it is quite similar to or the same as another, nor can be to eternity. Of these countless lusts man knows scarcely anything, and even less how they are connected with one another. Yet the Lord in his divine providence continually allows them to come forth, for them to be drawn away, and this is done in perfect order and sequence. For the evil man is a hell in miniature, and the good man a heaven in miniature.


[14] The withdrawal from evils, which the Lord effects in a thousand highly secret ways, may best be seen and concluded about from the secret activities of the soul in the body. Man knows that he examines the food he is about to eat, perceives what it is by its odor, hungers for it, tastes it, chews it, and by the tongue rolls it down into the esophagus and so into the stomach. But then there are the hidden activities of the soul of which he knows nothing, for he has no sensation of them. The stomach rolls about the food it receives, opens and breaks it up by solvents, that is, digests it, and offers fit portions to the little mouths opening in it and to veins which imbibe it. Some it sends to the blood, some to the lymphatic vessels, some to the lacteal vessels of the mesentery, and some down to the intestines. Then the chyle, conveyed through the thoracic duct from its cistern in the mesentery, is carried to the vena cava, and so to the heart. From the heart it is carried into the lungs, from them through the left ventricle of the heart into the aorta, and from this by its branches to viscera throughout the body and also to the kidneys. In each organ separation and purification of the blood are effected and removal of the heterogeneous, not to mention how the heart sends its blood up to the brain after purification in the lungs, which is done by the arteries called carotids, and how the brain returns the blood, now vivified, to the vena cava just above where the thoracic duct brings in the chyle, and so back again to the heart.


[15] These and countless other activities are secret operations of the soul in the body. Man has no sense of them, and unless he is acquainted with the science of anatomy, knows nothing of them. Yet similar activities take place in the interiors of the human mind. Nothing can take place in the body except from the mind, for man’s mind is his spirit, and his spirit is equally man; the sole difference being that what is done in the body is done naturally, while what is done in the mind is done spiritually; there is all similarity. Plainly, then, divine providence operates with every man in a thousand hidden ways, and its incessant care is to cleanse him, since its purpose is to save him. Plainly, too, nothing more is incumbent on man than to remove evils in the outward man; the Lord sees to the rest, when he is implored.


297. (3) The evil cannot be fully withdrawn from evil and led in good by the Lord so long as they believe their own intelligence to be everything and divine providence nothing. It would seem that man could withdraw himself from evil provided he thought that this or that was contrary to the common good, or to what is useful, or to national or international law, and this an evil as well as a good man can do if by birth or through practice he is such that he can think clearly within himself, analyzing and reasoning. But even then he is not capable of withdrawing himself from evil. The faculty of understanding and of perceiving, even abstractly, has indeed been given everyone by the Lord, to the evil as well as to the good, as has been shown above in many places, and yet man cannot deliver himself from evil by means of this faculty. For evil comes of the will, and the understanding influences the will only with light, enlightening and instructing. If the heat of the will, that is, man’s love, is hot with the lust of evil, it is cold towards the affection of good, therefore does not receive the light but either repels or extinguishes it, or by some fabricated falsity turns it into evil. The light is then like winter light, which is as clear as the light in summer and remains as clear even when it flows into frozen trees. But this can be seen better in the following order:


a. When the will is in evil, one’s own intelligence sees only falsity, and neither desires to see, nor can see, anything else.


b. If then one’s own intelligence is confronted with truth, it either turns away from it or falsifies it.


c. Divine providence continually causes man to see truth, and also gives him affection for perceiving and receiving it.


d. Through this means man is withdrawn from evil, not by himself, but by the Lord.


298. For these things to be made apparent to the rational man, whether he is evil or good, thus whether he is in the light of winter or in the light of summer (for colors appear the same in them), they are to be explained in due order.


(a) When the will is in evil, one’s own intelligence sees only falsity, and neither desires nor is able to see anything else. This has often been demonstrated in the spiritual world. Everyone, on becoming a spirit, which takes place after death when he puts off the material body and puts on the spiritual, is introduced by turns into the two states of his life, the external and the internal. In the external state he speaks and acts rationally, quite as a rational and wise man does in the world; he can also instruct others in much that pertains to moral and civil life, and if he has been a preacher he can also give instruction in the spiritual life. But when he is brought from this external state into his internal state, and the external is put to sleep and the internal awakes, the scene changes if he is evil. From being rational he becomes sensuous, and from being wise he becomes insane. For he thinks then from the evil of his will and its enjoyments, thus from his own intelligence, and sees only falsity and does nothing but evil, believing that evil is wisdom and that cunning is prudence. From his own intelligence he believes himself to be a deity and with all his mind sucks up nefarious ways.


[2] I have often seen instances of such insanity. I have also seen spirits introduced into these alternating states two or three times within an hour, and it was granted them to see and also acknowledge their insanities. Nevertheless they were unwilling to remain in a rational and moral state, but voluntarily returned to their internal sensuous and insane state. They loved this more than the other because the enjoyment of their life’s love was in it. Who can believe that an evil man is such beneath his outward appearance and that he undergoes such a transformation when he enters on his internal state?


This one experience makes plain the nature of one’s own intelligence when one thinks and acts from the evil of one’s will. It is otherwise with the good. When they are admitted from their external state into their internal state, they become still wiser and still more moral.


[3] (b) If then one’s own intelligence is confronted with truth, it either turns away from it or falsifies it. The human being has a volitional and an intellectual proprium. The volitional proprium is evil, and the intellectual proprium is falsity derived from evil; the latter is meant by “the will of man” and the former by “the will of the flesh” in John 1:13. The volitional proprium is in essence self-love, and the intellectual proprium is the pride coming of that love. The two are like married partners, and their union is called the marriage of evil and falsity. Into this union each evil spirit is admitted before he enters hell; he then does not know what good is; he calls his evil good, because that is what he feels to be enjoyable. He also turns away from truth then and has no desire to see it, because he sees the falsity which accords with his evil as the eye beholds what is beautiful, and hears it as the ear hears what is harmonious.


[4] (c) Divine providence continually causes man to see truth and also gives him affection for perceiving and receiving it. For divine providence acts from within and flows thence into the exteriors, that is, flows from what is spiritual into what is in the natural man, by the light of heaven enlightening his understanding and by the heat of heaven quickening his will. The light of heaven in essence is divine wisdom, and the heat of heaven in essence is divine love. From divine wisdom nothing can flow but truth, and from divine love nothing but good. With good the Lord bestows an affection in the understanding for seeing and also perceiving and receiving truth. Man thus becomes man not only in external aspect but in internal aspect, too. Everyone desires to appear a rational and spiritual man, and knows he so desires in order that others may believe him to be truly man. If then he is rational and spiritual in external form only, and not at the same time in his internal form, is he man? Is he different from a player on the stage or from an ape with an almost human face?


May one not know from this that only he is a human being who is inwardly what he desires others to think he is? One who acknowledges the one fact must admit the other. Man’s own intelligence can induce the human form only on externals, but divine providence induces it on internals and thence on externals. When it has been so induced, a man does not only appear to be a man; he is one.


[5] (d) Through this means man is withdrawn from evil, not by himself, but by the Lord. When divine providence gives man to see truth and to be affected by it, he can be withdrawn from evil for the reason that truth points the way and dictates; doing what truth dictates, the will unites with truth and within itself turns it into good, for it becomes something one loves, and what is loved is good. All reformation is effected through truth, not without it, for without truth the will continues in its evil, and should it consult the understanding, is not instructed; rather the evil is confirmed by falsities.


[6] With regard to intelligence, this seems to the good man as well as to an evil man to be his and proper to him. Like an evil man, he is also bound to act from intelligence as if it were his own. But one who believes in divine providence is withdrawn from evil, and one who does not believe in it is not withdrawn; he believes who acknowledges that evil is sin and desires to be withdrawn from it, and he does not believe who does not so acknowledge and desire. The difference between the two kinds of intelligence is like that between what is believed to exist in itself and what is believed not to exist in itself but to appear as if it did. It is also like the difference between an external without an internal similar to it and an external with a similar internal. Thus it is like the difference between impersonations of kings, princes, or generals by mimes and actors through word and bearing, and actual kings, princes, or generals.


The latter are such in fact as well as outwardly, but the former only outwardly, and when the exterior is laid off, are known only as comedians, actors, or players.


299. (4) The Lord governs hell by means of opposites, and those in the world who are evil he governs in hell as to their interiors but not as to their exteriors. One who does not know the character of heaven and hell cannot know at all that of man’s mind; his mind is his spirit which survives death. For the mind or spirit of man is altogether in form what heaven or hell is. The only difference is that one is vast and the other very small, or one is archetype and the other a copy. As to his mind or spirit, accordingly, the human being is either heaven or hell in least form, heaven if he is led by the Lord, and hell if he is led by his proprium. Inasmuch as it has been granted me to know what heaven and hell are, and it is important to know what the human being is in respect to his mind or spirit, I will describe both heaven and hell briefly.


300. All who are in heaven are nothing other than affections of good and thoughts thence of truth, and all who are in hell are nothing other than lusts of evil and imaginations thence of falsity. These are so arranged respectively that the lusts of evil and the imaginings of falsity in hell are precisely opposite to the affections of good and the thoughts of truth in heaven. Therefore hell is under heaven and diametrically opposite, that is, the two are like two men lying in opposite directions, or standing, invertedly, like men at the antipodes, only the soles of their feet meeting and their heels hitting. At times hell also appears to be so situated or inverted relatively to heaven, for the reason that those in hell make lusts of evil the head and affections of good the feet, while those in heaven make affections of good the head and lusts of evil the soles of the feet; hence the mutual opposition. When it is said that in heaven there are affections of good and thoughts of truth from them, and in hell lusts of evil and imaginations of falsity from them, the meaning is that there are spirits and angels who are such. For everyone is his affection or his lust, an angel of heaven his affection and a spirit of hell his lust.


301. The angels of heaven are affections of good and thoughts thence of truth because they are recipients of divine love and wisdom from the Lord; for all affections of good are from the divine love and all thoughts of truth are from the divine wisdom. But the spirits of hell are lusts of evil and the imaginations thence of falsity because they are in self-love and their own intelligence, and all lusts of evil come of self-love and imaginations of falsity from one’s own intelligence.


302. The ordering of affections in heaven and of lusts in hell is marvelous, and is known to the Lord alone. They are each distinguished into genera and species, and are so conjoined as to make a unit. As they are distinguished into genera and species, they are distinguished into larger and smaller societies, and as they are so conjoined as to make a unit, they are conjoined as all things in man are. Hence in its form heaven is like a comely man, whose soul is divine love and wisdom, thus the Lord, and hell in its form is like a monstrous man, his soul self-love and self-intelligence, thus the devil. No devil is sole lord there; self-love is so called.


303. But that the nature of heaven and of hell respectively may be better known, instead of affections of good let enjoyments of good be understood, and enjoyments of evil instead of lusts of evil, for no affections or lusts are without their enjoyments, and enjoyments make one’s life. These enjoyments are distinguished and conjoined as we said affections of good and lusts of evil are. The enjoyment of his affection fills and surrounds each angel, the enjoyment common to a society of heaven fills and surrounds each society, and the enjoyment of all the angels together or the most widely shared enjoyment fills and envelops heaven as a whole. Similarly, the pleasure of his lust fills and envelops each spirit of hell, a common enjoyment every society in hell, and the enjoyment of all or the most widely shared enjoyment fills and envelops all hell. Since, as was said, the affections of heaven and the lusts of hell are diametrically opposite to each other, plainly a heavenly joy is so unenjoyable to hell that it is unbearable, and in turn an infernal joy is so unenjoyable to heaven that it is unbearable, too. Hence the antipathy, aversion, and separateness.


304. As these enjoyments constitute the life of each individual and of all in general, they are not sensed by those in them, but the opposite enjoyments are sensed when brought near, especially if they are turned into odors; for every enjoyment corresponds to an odor and in the spiritual world may be converted into it. Then the general enjoyment in heaven is sensed as the odor of a garden, varied according to the fragrance of flowers and fruits; the general enjoyment in hell is sensed as the odor of stagnant water, into which filth of various sorts has been thrown, the odor varied according to the stench of the things decaying and reeking in it. While I have been given to know how the enjoyment of a particular affection of good is sensed in heaven, and the enjoyment of some lust of evil in hell, it would take too long to relate it here.


305. I have heard many newcomers from the world complain that they had not known that their destiny would be according to the affections of their love. To these, they said, they had given no thought in the world, much less to the enjoyments of the affections, for they loved what they found enjoyable. They had believed that each person’s lot would be according to his thoughts from his intelligence, especially according to thoughts of piety and of faith. But they were answered, that they could have known, if they wished, that evil of life is unacceptable to heaven and displeasing to God, but acceptable to hell and pleasing to the devil, and the other way about, that good of life is acceptable to heaven and pleasing to God, but unacceptable to hell and displeasing to the devil; consequently that evil in itself is malodorous and good is fragrant.


As they might have known this if they wished, why did they not shun evils as infernal and diabolical, but indulge in them merely because they were enjoyable? Aware now that the enjoyments of evil smell so foully, they might also know that those full of them cannot enter heaven. Upon this reply they betook themselves to those who were in similar enjoyments, for only there could they breathe.


306. From the idea of heaven and hell just given, it may be evident what the nature of man’s mind is. For, as was said, man’s mind or spirit is either a heaven or a hell in least form, that is, his interiors are nothing other than affections and thoughts thence, distinguished into genera and species, like the larger and smaller societies of heaven or hell, and so connected as to act as a unit. The Lord governs them as he does heaven or hell. That the human being is either heaven or hell in least form may be seen in Heaven and Hell, published at London in 1758.


307. Now to the subject proposed, that the Lord governs hell by means of opposites, and those in the world who are evil he governs in hell as to their interiors but not as to their exteriors. On the first point, that the Lord governs hell through opposites, it was shown above (n. 288, 289) that the angels of heaven are not in love and wisdom, or in the affection of good and thence in thought of truth from themselves, but from the Lord, likewise that good and truth flow from heaven into hell where good is turned into evil and truth into falsity because the interiors of the minds of those in heaven and in hell respectively are turned in opposite directions. Inasmuch then as all things in hell are the opposite of all things in heaven, the Lord governs hell by means of opposites.


[2] The second point, that the Lord governs in hell those in the world who are evil. This is for the reason that the human being as to his spirit is in the spiritual world and in some society there, in an infernal society if he is evil, in a heavenly one if he is good. For his mind, which in itself is spiritual, cannot be anywhere but among spiritual beings, of whom he becomes one after death. This has also been stated and demonstrated above. A man is not there, however, in the same way as a spirit is who has been assigned to the society, for man is constantly in a state to be reformed, and therefore, if he is evil, is transferred by the Lord from one infernal society to another according to his life and the changes in it. But if he permits himself to be reformed, he is led out of hell and elevated to heaven, and there, too, he is carried from one society to another until his death, after which this does not take place as he is then no longer in a state to be reformed, but remains in the state which is his from his life. When a person dies, therefore, he is assigned his place.


[3] Thirdly, the Lord governs the evil who are in the world in this way as to their interiors, but in another way as to their exteriors. The Lord governs the interiors of man’s mind in the manner just stated, but governs the exteriors in the world of spirits, which is between heaven and hell. The reason is that commonly man is different in externals from what he is in internals. He can feign outwardly to be an angel of light and yet inwardly be a spirit of darkness. His external is therefore governed in one way, and his internal in another; as long as he is in the world, his external is governed in the world of spirits, and his internal in either heaven or hell. On death one also enters the world of spirits first, therefore, and comes into his external, which he puts off there; having put it off, he is conducted to the place assigned as his. What the world of spirits is and its nature may be seen in the work Heaven and Hell, published at London in 1758, n. 421-535.







Divine Providence Appropriates Neither Evil Nor Good to Anyone, but One’s Own Prudence Appropriates Both



308. Almost everyone believes that man thinks and wills, hence speaks and acts, from himself. Who of himself can believe otherwise? For the appearance that he does is so strong that it differs not at all from actually thinking, willing, speaking, and acting from oneself, which is impossible. In Angelic Wisdom about Divine Love and Wisdom it was shown that there is only one life and that men are recipients of life; also that the human will is the receptacle of love, and the human understanding the receptacle of wisdom; love and wisdom are the one life. It was also demonstrated that by creation and steadily therefore by divine providence this life appears in the human being quite as though it sprang from him and hence was his own, but that this is the appearance so that man can be a receptacle. It was also shown above (n. 288-294) that no one thinks from himself but from others, nor the others from themselves, but all from the Lord, an evil person as well as a good person. We showed further that this is well known in Christendom, especially to those who not only say but also believe that all good and truth, all wisdom and thus all faith and charity are from the Lord, also that all evil and falsity are from the devil or hell.


[2] One can only conclude from all this that everything which a man thinks and wills flows into him. And since all speech flows from thought as an effect from its cause, and all action flows similarly from the will, it follows that everything which one speaks and does also flows in, albeit derivatively or indirectly. It is undeniable that all which one sees, hears, smells, tastes, or feels flows in; why not then what he thinks and wills?


Can there be any difference other than this, that entities in the natural world flow into the organs of the external senses or of the body, while entities in the spiritual world flow into the organic substances of the internal senses or of the mind? Hence as the organs of the external senses or of the body are receptacles of natural objects, so the organic substances of the internal senses or of the mind are receptacles of spiritual objects. As this is man’s situation, what then is his proprium? It cannot consist in his being such or such a receptacle, for then it would only be the man’s manner of reception, not the life’s proprium. No one understands by proprium anything else than that he lives of himself and consequently thinks and wills of himself; but that there is no such proprium and indeed cannot be with anyone follows from what was said above.


309. But let me relate what I have heard from some in the spiritual world. They were of those who believe that one’s own prudence is everything and divine providence nothing. I remarked that man has no proprium unless you want to call it his proprium that he is such or such a subject or organ or form. This is not the proprium that is meant, however, for it is only descriptive of the nature of man. No man, I said, has any proprium as the word is commonly understood.


At this those who ascribed everything to their own prudence and who may be called the very picture of proprietorship, flared up so that flames seemed to come from their nostrils as they said, “You speak paradox and insanity! Would man not be an empty nothing then? Or an idea or fancy? Or a graven image or statue?”


[2] To this I could only reply that it is paradox and insanity to believe that man has life of himself, and that wisdom and prudence, likewise the good of charity and the truth of faith, do not flow in from God but are in man. To attribute them to oneself every wise person calls insane and also paradoxical. Those who attribute them to themselves are like tenants of another’s house and property who persuade themselves by living there that it is their own; or like stewards and administrators who consider all that their master owns to be theirs; or like servants in business to whom their master gave talents and pounds to trade with, but who rendered no account to him but kept all as theirs and thus behaved like robbers.


[3] It may be said of such that they are insane, indeed are nothing and empty, likewise are idealists, since they do not have in them from the Lord good which is the esse itself of life, thus do not have truth, either. They are also called “dead” therefore and “nothing and empty” (Isa. 40:17, 23), and elsewhere “makers of images,” “graven images” and “statues.” More about them in what follows, to be done in this order:


1. What one’s own prudence is, and what prudence not one’s own is.


2. By his own prudence man persuades himself and confirms in himself that all good and truth are from him and in him; similarly all evil and falsity.


3. All that a man is persuaded of and confirms remains with him as his own.


4. If man believed, as is the truth, that all good and truth are from the Lord, and all evil and falsity from hell, he would not appropriate good to himself and consider it merited, nor appropriate evil to himself and make himself responsible for it.


310. (1) What one’s own prudence is, and what prudence not one’s own is. Those are in prudence of their own who confirm appearances in themselves and make them truths, especially the appearance that one’s own prudence is all and divine providence nothing—unless it is something universal, which it cannot be without singulars to constitute it, as was shown above. They are also in fallacies, for every appearance confirmed as truth becomes a fallacy, and so far as they confirm themselves by fallacies they become naturalists and to that extent believe nothing that they cannot perceive by one of the bodily senses, particularly that of sight, for this especially acts as one with thought. They finally become sensuous.


If they confirm themselves in favor of nature instead of God, they close the interiors of their mind, interpose a veil as it were, and then do their thinking below it and not at all above it. Such sense-ridden men were called serpents of the tree of knowledge by the ancients. It is also said of them in the spiritual world that as they confirm themselves they at length close the interiors of their mind “to the nose,” for the nose signifies perception of truth, of which they have none. What their nature is will be told now.


[2] They are more cunning and crafty than others and are ingenious reasoners. They call cunning and craftiness intelligence and wisdom, nor do they know otherwise. They look on those who are not like themselves as simple and stupid, especially those who worship God and acknowledge divine providence. In respect of the interior principles of their minds, of which they know little, they are like those called Machiavellians, who make murder, adultery, theft, and false witness, viewed in themselves, of no account; if they reason against them it is only out of prudence not to appear to be of that nature.


[3] Of man’s life in the world they think it is like that of a beast, and of his life after death that it is like a vital vapor which, rising from the body or the grave, sinks back again and dies. From this madness comes the notion that spirits and angels are airy entities, and with those who have been enjoined to believe in everlasting life that the souls of men also are. They therefore do not see, hear or speak, but are blind, deaf and dumb, and only cogitate in their particle of air. The sense-ridden ask, “How can the soul be anything else? The external senses died with the body, did they not? They cannot be resumed before the soul is reunited with the body.” Inasmuch as they could comprehend the state of the soul after death only sensuously and not spiritually, they have fixed upon the state described; otherwise their belief in everlasting life would have perished. Above all, they confirm self-love in themselves, calling it the fire of life and the incentive to various uses in the kingdom. Being of this nature, they are their own idols, and their thoughts, being fallacies and from fallacies, are images of falsity. Indulging in the enjoyments of lusts, they are satans and devils; those who confirm lusts of evil in themselves are satans, and those who live them are called devils.


[4] It has also been granted me to know the nature of the most crafty sensuous men. Their hell is deep down at the back, and they want to be inconspicuous. Therefore they appear to hover about there like specters, which are their fantasies, and they are called genii. Some were sent out from that hell once for me to learn what they are like. They immediately addressed themselves to my neck below the occiput and thus entered my affections, not wanting to enter my thoughts, which they adroitly avoided. They altered my affections one by one with a mind to bend them imperceptibly into their opposites, which are lusts of evil; and as they did not touch my thought at all they would have bent and inverted my affections without my knowledge, had not the Lord prevented it.


[5] Such do they become who do not believe that there can be any divine providence, and who search only for cupidities and cravings in others and thus lead them along until they dominate them. They do this so secretly and artfully that one does not know it, and they remain the same on death; therefore they are cast down into that hell as soon as they enter the spiritual world. Seen in heaven’s light they appear to be without a nose, and it is remarkable that although they are so crafty they are more senseridden than others.


[6] The ancients called a sensuous man a serpent, and such a man is more cunning and crafty and a more ingenious reasoner than others; therefore it is said:


The serpent was more crafty than any beast of the field (Gen. 3:1);


and the Lord said:


Be prudent as serpents and simple as doves (Matt. 10:16).


The dragon, too, called “that old serpent” and the “devil” and “satan,” is described as:


Having seven heads and ten horns, and on his heads seven crowns (Rev. 12:3, 9).


Craftiness is signified by the seven heads; the power to persuade by fallacies is meant by the ten horns; and holy things of the Word and the church which have been profaned are signified by the seven crowns.


311. From the description of one’s own prudence and of those who are in it, the nature of prudence not one’s own and of those who are in it may be seen. Those have prudence not their own who do not confirm in themselves that intelligence and wisdom are from man. They ask, “How can anyone be wise of himself or do good of himself?” When they speak so, they see in themselves that it is so, for they think interiorly. They also believe that others think similarly, especially the learned, for they are unaware that anyone can think only exteriorly.


[2] They are not in fallacies by any confirmation of appearances. They know and perceive, therefore, that murder, adultery, theft, and false witness are sins and accordingly shun them on that account. They also know that wickedness is not wisdom and cunning is not intelligence. When they hear ingenious reasoning from fallacies they wonder and smile to themselves. This is because with them there is no veil between interiors and exteriors, or between the spiritual and the natural things of the mind, as there is with the sensuous. They therefore receive influx from heaven by which they see these things.


[3] They speak more simply and sincerely than others and place wisdom in life and not in talk. Relatively they are like lambs and sheep while those who are in their own prudence are like wolves and foxes. Or they are like those living in a house who see the sky through the windows while those who are in prudence of their own are like persons living in the basement of a house who can look out through the windows only on what is down on the ground. Again they are like persons standing on a mountain who see those who are in prudence of their own as wanderers in valleys and forests.


[4] Hence it may be plain that prudence not one’s own is prudence from the Lord, in externals appearing similar to prudence of one’s own, but totally unlike it in internals. In internals prudence not one’s own appears in the spiritual world as a man, while prudence which is one’s own appears like a statue, which seems living only because those who are in such prudence still possess rationality and freedom or the capacity to understand and to will, hence to speak and act, and by means of these faculties can make it appear that they also are men. They are such statues because evils and falsities have no life; only goods and truths do. By their rationality they know this, for if they did not they would not feign goods and truths; hence in their simulation of them they possess a vital humanness.


[5] Who does not know that a man is what he is inwardly? Consequently that he is a man who is inwardly what he wishes to appear to be outwardly, while he is a copy who is a man outwardly only and not inwardly. Think, as you speak, in favor of God and religion, of righteousness and sincerity, and you will be a man, and divine providence will be your prudence; you will perceive in others that one’s own prudence is insanity.


312. (2) By his own prudence man persuades himself and confirms in himself that all good and truth are from him and in him; similarly all evil and falsity. Rest the argument on the parallel between natural good and truth and spiritual good and truth. Ask what truth and good are to the sight of the eye. Is not what is called beautiful truth to it, and what is called enjoyable good to it? For enjoyment is felt in beholding what is beautiful. What are truth and good to the hearing? Is not what is called harmonious truth to it, and what is called pleasing good to it? For pleasure is felt in hearing harmonies. It is the same with the other senses. What natural good and truth are is plain, then. Consider now what spiritual good and truth are. Is spiritual truth anything other than beauty and harmony in spiritual matters and objects? And is spiritual good anything other than the enjoyment and pleasure of perceiving the beauty and harmony?


[2] Let us see now whether anything different is to be said of the one from what is said of the other, that is, of the spiritual from what is said of the natural. Of the natural we say that what is beautiful and enjoyable to the eye flows in from objects, and what is harmonious and pleasing to the ear flows in from musical instruments. Is something different to be said in relation to the organic substances of the mind? Of these it is said that the enjoyable and pleasing are in them, while it is said of eye and ear that they flow in. If you inquire why it is said that they flow in, the one answer possible is that distance appears between the objects and the organs. But when one asks why it is said that in the other case they are indwelling, the one possible answer is that no distance appears between the two. Consequently, it is the appearance of distance that results in believing one thing about what one thinks and perceives, and another thing about what one sees and hears. But this becomes baseless when one reflects that the spiritual is not in space as the natural is. Think of sun or moon, or of Rome or Constantinople; do you not think of them apart from distance (provided the thought is not joined to the experience gained by sight or hearing)? Why then persuade yourself that because there is no appearance of distance in thought, that good and truth, as also evil and falsity, are indwelling, and do not flow in?


[3] Let me add to this an experience which is common in the spiritual world. One spirit can infuse his thoughts and affections into another, and the other not know that it is not his own thinking and affection. This is called in that world thinking from and in another. I have witnessed it a thousand times and also done it a hundred times; and it seemed to occur at a considerable distance. As soon as the spirits learned that another was introducing the thoughts and affections, they were indignant and turned away, recognizing then, however, that to the internal thought or sight no distance is apparent unless it is disclosed, as it may be, to the external sight or the eye; as a result it is believed that there is influx.


[4] I will add to this experience an everyday experience of mine. Evil spirits have often put into my thoughts evils and falsities which seemed to me to be in me and to originate from me, or seemed to be my own thought. Knowing them to be evils and falsities, I searched out the spirits who had introduced them, and they were detected and driven off. They were at a great distance from me.


It may be manifest from these things that all evil with its falsity flows in from hell and all good with its truth flows in from the Lord, and that both appear to be in man.


313. The nature of men who are in prudence of their own, and the nature of those in prudence not their own and hence in the divine providence, is depicted in the Word by Adam and his wife Eve in the Garden of Eden where were two trees, one of life and the other of the knowledge of good and evil, and by their eating of the latter tree. It may be seen above (n. 241) that in the internal or spiritual sense of the Word by Adam and Eve, his wife, the most ancient church of the Lord on this earth is meant and described, which was more noble and heavenly than subsequent churches.


[2] Following is what is signified by other particulars. The wisdom of the men of that church is signified by the Garden of Eden; the Lord in respect to divine providence is signified by the tree of life, and man in respect to his own prudence is meant by the tree of knowledge; his sensuous life and his proprium, which in itself is self-love and pride in one’s own intelligence, and thus is the devil and satan, is signified by the serpent; and the appropriation of good and truth with the thought that they are not from the Lord and are not the Lord’s, but are from man and are his, is signified by eating of the tree of knowledge. Inasmuch as good and truth are what is divine with man (for everything of love is meant by good, and everything of wisdom by truth), if man claims them as his, he cannot but believe that he is as God. Therefore the serpent said:


In the day you eat of it, your eyes will be opened, and you will be as God, knowing good and evil (Gen. 3:5).


So do those in hell believe, who are in self-love and thence in the pride of their own intelligence.


[3] Condemnation of self-love and self-intelligence is meant by the condemnation of the serpent; the condemnation of the volitional proprium is meant by the condemnation of Eve and the condemnation of the intellectual proprium by the condemnation of Adam; sheer falsity and evil are signified by the thorn and thistle which the earth would produce for Adam; the loss of wisdom is signified by the expulsion from the Garden; the Lord’s care lest holy things of the Word and the church be violated is meant by guarding the way to the tree of life; moral truths, veiling men’s self-love and conceit, are signified by the fig leaves with which Adam and Eve covered their nakedness; and appearances of truth, in which alone they were, are signified by the coats of skin with which they were later clothed. Such is the spiritual understanding of these particulars. Let him who wishes remain in the sense of the letter, only let him know that it is so understood in heaven.


314. The nature of those who are infatuated with their own intelligence can be seen from their fancies in matters of interior judgment, as, for example, about influx, thought, and life. Their thinking about influx is inverted. They think that the sight of the eye flows into the internal sight of the mind or into the understanding, and that the hearing of the ear flows into the internal hearing, which also is the understanding. They do not perceive that the understanding from the will flows into the eye and the ear, and not only constitutes those senses but also employs them as its instruments in the natural world. As this is not according to the appearance, they do not perceive even if it is only said that the natural does not flow into the spiritual, but the spiritual into the natural. They still think, “What is the spiritual except a finer natural?” And again, “When the eye beholds something beautiful or the ear hears something melodious, of course the mind, which is understanding and will, is delighted.” They do not know that the eye does not see of itself, nor the tongue taste, nor the nose smell, nor the skin feel of itself, but that it is the man’s mind or spirit which has the perceptions in the sensation and which is affected according to its nature by the sensation. Indeed, the mind or spirit does not sense things of itself, but does so from the Lord; to think otherwise is to think from appearances, and if these are confirmed, from fallacies.


[2] Regarding thought, they say that it is something modified in the air, varied according to topic, and widened by cultivation; thus that the ideas in thoughts are images appearing, meteorlike, in the air; and that the memory is a tablet on which they are imprinted. They do not know that thought goes on in purely organic substances just as much as sight and hearing do. Only let them examine the brain, and they will see that it is full of such substances; injure them and you will become delirious; destroy them and you will die. But what thought and memory are see above at n. 279 end.


[3] Regarding life, they know it only as an activity of nature, which makes itself felt in different ways, as a live body bestirs itself organically. If it is remarked that nature is alive then, they deny this, and say it enables to life. If one asks, “Is life not dissipated then on the death of the body?” they reply that life remains in a particle of air called the soul. Asked “What then is God? Is he not life itself?” they keep silence and do not want to utter what they think. Asked, “Would you grant that divine love and wisdom are life itself?” they answer, “What are love and wisdom?” For in their fallacies they do not see what these are or what God is.


These things have been adduced that it may be seen how man is infatuated by prudence of his own because he draws all conclusions then from appearances and thus from fallacies.


316.9 By one’s own prudence one is persuaded and confirmed that all good and truth are from man and in man, because a mans own prudence is his intellectual proprium, flowing in from self-love, which is his volitional proprium; proprium inevitably makes everything its own; it cannot be raised above doing so. All who are led by the Lord’s divine providence are raised above the proprium and then see that all good and truth are from the Lord, indeed see that what in the human being is from the Lord is always the Lord’s and never man’s. He who believes otherwise is like one who has his master’s goods in his care and claims them himself or appropriates them—he is no steward, but a thief. As man’s proprium is nothing but evil, he also immerses the goods in his evil, by which they are destroyed like pearls thrown into dung or into acid.


317. (3) All that a man is persuaded of and confirms remains with him as his own. Many believe that no truth can be seen by man without confirmations of it, but this is false. In civic and economic matters in a kingdom or republic what is useful and good can be seen only with some knowledge of its numerous statutes and ordinances; in judicial matters only with knowledge of the law; and in natural subjects, like physics, chemistry, anatomy, mechanics and others, only on acquaintance with those sciences. But in purely rational, moral, and spiritual matters, truths appear in light of their own, if man has become somewhat rational, moral, and spiritual through a suitable education. This is because everyone as to his spirit, which is what thinks, is in the spiritual world and is one among those there, consequently is in spiritual light, which enlightens the interiors of his understanding and, as it were, dictates. For spiritual light in essence is the divine truth of the Lord’s divine wisdom. Thence it is that man can think analytically, form conclusions about what is just and right in matters of judgment, see what is honorable in moral life and good in spiritual life, and see many truths, which are darkened only by the confirmation of falsities. Man sees them almost as readily as he sees another’s disposition from his face or perceives his affections from the sound of his voice, with no further knowledge than is implanted in one. Why should not man in some measure see from influx the interiors of his life, which are spiritual and moral, when there is no animal that does not know by influx all things necessary to it, which are natural? A bird knows how to build its nest, lay its eggs, hatch its young and recognize its food, besides other wonders which are named instinct.


318. How this state is changed, however, by confirmations and consequent persuasions will be told now in this order:


a. There is nothing that cannot be confirmed, and falsity is confirmed more readily than truth.


b. Truth does not appear when falsity has been confirmed, but falsity is apparent from confirmed truth.


c. The ability to confirm whatever one pleases is not intelligence but only ingenuity, to be found in the worst of men.


d. Confirmation may be mental and not at the same time volitional, but all volitional confirmation is also mental.


e. Confirmation of evil both volitional and intellectual causes man to believe that one’s own prudence is everything and divine providence nothing, but not confirmation solely intellectual.


f. Everything confirmed by the will and at the same time by the understanding, remains to eternity, but not what has been confirmed only by the understanding.


[2] Touching (a) that there is nothing that cannot be confirmed, and that falsity is confirmed more readily than truth. What, indeed, cannot be confirmed when atheists confirm that God is not the creator of the universe but that nature is her own creator; that religion is only a restraint and is for simple and common folks; that man is like the beast and dies like one; that adultery and secret theft, fraud and deceitful schemes are allowable, and that cunning is intelligence and wickedness is wisdom. Everyone confirms his heresy. Volumes are filled with confirmations of the two heresies prevalent in Christendom. Assemble ten heresies, however abstruse, ask an ingenious man to confirm them, and he will confirm them all. If you regard them then solely from the confirmations of them, will you not be seeing falsities as truth? Since all that is false lights up in the natural man from its appearances and fallacies, but truth lights up only in the spiritual man, plainly falsity can be confirmed more readily than truth.


[3] For it to be known that everything false and everything evil can be confirmed even to the point that what is false seems true and what is evil seems to be good, take for example the confirmation that light is darkness and darkness is light. A man may ask, “What is light in itself? Is not light only something which appears in the eye according to the eye’s condition? What is light when the eye is closed? Do not bats and owls have eyes to see light as darkness and darkness as light? I have heard it said that some persons see in like manner, and that infernal spirits, despite being in darkness, see one another. Does one not have light in his dreams in the middle of the night? Is darkness not light, therefore, and light darkness?” It can be replied, “What of that? Light is light as truth is truth, and darkness is darkness as falsity is falsity.”


[4] Take a further example: confirmation that the crow is white. May its blackness not be said to be only a shading which is not the real fact? Its feathers are white inside, its body, too; and these are the stuff of which the bird is made. As its blackness is a shading, the crow turns white as it grows old—some such have been seen. What is black in itself but white? Pulverize black glass and you will see that the powder is white. When you call the crow black, therefore, you are speaking of the shadow and not of the reality. The reply can be, “What of it? All birds should be called white then.”


Contrary as they are to sound reason, these arguments have been recited to show that it is possible to confirm falsity that is directly opposite to truth and evil that is directly opposite to good.


[5] (b) Truth does not appear when falsity has been confirmed, but falsity is apparent from truth confirmed. All falsity is in darkness and all truth in light. In darkness nothing is seen, nor indeed is it known what anything is except by contact with it, but it is different in the light. In the Word falsities are therefore called darkness, and those who are in falsities are said to walk in darkness and in the shadow of death. In turn, truths are called light in it, and those who are in truths are said to walk in the light and to be the children of light.


[6] There is much to show that when falsity has been confirmed, truth does not appear, but when truth has been confirmed, falsity is apparent. For instance, who would see a spiritual truth unless the Word taught it? Would there not be darkness that could be dispelled only by the light in which the Word is, and only with one who wishes to be enlightened? What heretic can see his falsities unless he welcomes the genuine truth of the church? Until then he does not see them. I have talked with those who confirmed themselves in faith apart from charity and who were asked whether they saw the frequent mention in the Word of love and charity, works and deeds, and keeping the Commandments, and the declaration that the man who keeps the Commandments is blessed and wise, but the man who does not is foolish. They said that on reading these things they saw them only as matters of faith, and passed them by with their eyes closed, so to speak.


[7] Those who have confirmed themselves in falsities are like men who see streaks on a wall, and at twilight fancy that they see the figure of a horseman or just of a man, a visionary image which is dissipated when the daylight floods in. Who can sense the spiritual uncleanness of adultery except one who is in the cleanliness of chastity? Who can feel the cruelty of vengeance except one who is in good from love to the neighbor? What adulterer or what avenger does not sneer at those who call enjoyment in such acts as theirs infernal but the enjoyments of marital love and neighborly love heavenly? And so on.


[8] (c) The ability to confirm whatever one pleases is not intelligence but only ingenuity, to be found in the worst of men. Some show the greatest dexterity in confirmation, who know no truth and yet can confirm both truth and falsity. Some of them remark, “What is truth? Is there such a thing? Is not that true which I make true?” In the world they are believed to be intelligent, and yet they are only daubing a wall.10 Only those are intelligent who perceive truth to be truth and who confirm it by verities constantly perceived.


Little difference may be seen between the latter and the former because one cannot distinguish between the light of confirmation and the light of the perception of truth. Those in the light of confirmation seem also to be in the light of the perception of truth. Yet the difference is like that between illusory light and genuine. In the spiritual world illusory light is such that it turns into darkness when genuine light flows in. There is such illusory light with many in hell; on being brought out into genuine light they see nothing at all. It is evident, then, that to be able to confirm whatever one pleases is only ingenuity, which the worst of men may have.


[9] (d) Confirmation may be mental and not at the same time volitional, but all volitional confirmation is also mental. Let an example serve to illustrate this. Those who confirm faith separate from charity and yet live the life of charity, and in general those who confirm a falsity of doctrine and yet do not live according to it, are in intellectual confirmation but not at the same time volitional. On the other hand, those who confirm falsity of doctrine and live according to it are in volitional and at the same time in intellectual confirmation. For the understanding does not flow into the will, but the will into the understanding. Hence it is plain what falsity of evil is, and what falsity not of evil is. Falsity which is not of evil can be conjoined with good, but falsity of evil cannot be. For falsity which is not of evil is falsity in the understanding but not in the will, while falsity of evil is falsity in the understanding which comes of evil in the will.


[10] (e) Confirmation of evil, both volitional and intellectual, but not confirmation only intellectual, causes man to believe that his own prudence is everything and divine providence nothing. Many confirm their own prudence in themselves on the strength of appearances in the world, and yet do not deny divine providence; theirs is only intellectual confirmation. But in others, who deny divine providence at the same time, there is volitional confirmation; this, together with persuasion, is found chiefly in worshipers of nature and also in worshipers of self.


[11] (f) Everything confirmed by the will and at the same time by the understanding remains to eternity, but not what is confirmed only by the understanding. For what pertains to the understanding alone is not within man but outside him; it is only in the thought. Nothing enters man and is appropriated to him except what is received by the will; then it comes to be of his life’s love. This, it will be shown in the next number, remains to eternity.


319. Everything confirmed by both the will and the understanding remains to eternity because everyone is his own love, and love attaches to the will; also because everyone is his own good or his own evil, for that is called good or evil which belongs to the love. Since man is his own love he is also the form of his love, and may be called the organ of his life’s love.


It was stated above (n. 279) that the affections of man’s love and his resulting thoughts are changes and variations of the state and form of the organic substances of his mind. What these changes and variations are and their nature will be explained now. Some idea of them may be obtained from the alternating expansions and compressions or dilations and contractions in the heart and lungs, called in the heart systole and diastole, and in the lungs respirations. These are reciprocal extensions and retractions or expansions and contractions of their lobes. Such are the changes and variations in the state of the heart and lungs. Such changes and variations occur in the other viscera of the body and in their parts, too, by which the blood and the animal juices are received and transmitted.


[2] Similar changes and variations take place in the organic forms of the mind, which, as we showed above, are the substances underlying man’s affections and thoughts. There is a difference. Their expansions and compressions or reciprocal activities in comparison have so much greater perfection that they cannot be described in words of natural language, but only in words of spiritual language, which can sound only as saying that the changes and variations are vortical gyrations in and out, after the manner of perpetually winding spirals wonderfully massed into forms receptive of life.


[3] Now to tell the nature of these purely organic substances and forms in the evil and in the good respectively: in the good the spiral forms travel forward, in the evil backward; the forward-traveling are turned to the Lord and receive influx from him; the retrogressive are turned towards hell and receive influx from hell. It should be known that in the measure in which they turn backward these forms are open behind and closed in front; and on the other hand in the measure in which they turn forward, they are open in front and closed behind.


[4] This can make plain what kind of form or organ an evil man is and what kind of form or organ a good man is, and that they are turned in opposite directions. As the turning once established cannot be twisted back it is plain that man remains to eternity such as he is at death. The love of man’s will is what effects this turning, or is what either converts or inverts, for, as was said above, each person is his own love. Hence, on death, everyone goes the way of his love, the man in a good love to heaven, and the man in an evil love to hell, nor does he rest except in that society where his ruling love is. Marvelous it is that each knows the way; it is as though he scents it.


320. (4) If man believed, as is the truth, that all good and truth are from the Lord and all evil and falsity from hell, he would not appropriate good to himself and consider it merited, nor evil and make himself responsible for it. This is contrary to the belief of those who have confirmed in themselves the appearance that wisdom and prudence come from man and do not flow in according to the state of the organization of the mind, treated of above (n. 319). It must therefore be demonstrated, and to be done clearly, it will be done in this order:


a. One who confirms in himself the appearance that wisdom and prudence are from man and thus in him as his, must take the view that otherwise he would not be a man, but either a beast or a statue; yet the contrary is true.


b. To believe and think, as is the truth, that all good and truth are from the Lord and all evil and falsity from hell, seems impossible, yet is truly human and hence angelic.


c. So to believe and think is impossible to those who do not acknowledge the divine of the Lord and that evils are sins, but possible for those who make these two acknowledgments.


d. Those who make the two acknowledgments alone reflect on the evils in themselves, and so far as they flee them and are averse to them, they send them back to hell from which they come.


e. So divine providence appropriates neither evil nor good to anyone, but one’s own prudence appropriates both.


321. These propositions will be explained in the order proposed. (a) One who confirms in himself the appearance that wisdom and prudence are from man and thus in him as his, must take the view that otherwise he would not be a man, but either a beast or a statue; yet the contrary is true. It comes from a law of divine providence that man is to think as it were from himself and act prudently as of himself, but still acknowledge that he does so from the Lord. It follows that one who thinks and acts prudently as of himself and acknowledges at the same time that he does so from the Lord, is a man, but that person is not who confirms in himself the idea that all he thinks and does is from himself. Neither is he a man who, knowing that wisdom and prudence are from God, keeps awaiting influx. This man becomes like a statue, the other like a beast. One who waits for influx is obviously like a statue; he is sure to stand or sit motionless, his hands dropped, his eyes closed or, if open, unblinking, and neither thinking nor breathing. What life has he then?


[2] Plainly, too, one who believes that everything he thinks and does is from himself is not unlike a beast. For he thinks only from the natural mind which man has in common with beasts, and not from the spiritual, rational mind which is the truly human mind; for this mind acknowledges that God alone thinks from himself and that man does so from God. Therefore one who thinks only from the natural mind knows no difference between man and animal except that man speaks and a beast makes sounds, and he believes they die alike.


[3] Something further is to be said about those who await influx. They receive none, except for a few who desire it with the whole heart. These at times receive some response through a living perception in thought or by tacit utterance but rarely by an explicit one, and this then is that they should think and act as they determine and are able, and that one who acts wisely is wise and one who acts foolishly is foolish. They are never instructed what to believe or do, in order that human rationality and liberty may not perish, that is, in order that everyone shall act in freedom according to reason in all appearance as of himself. Those who are told by influx what they are to believe or do are not being instructed by the Lord, nor by any angel of heaven, but by some spirit, an Enthusiast, Quaker, or Moravian, and are being misled. All influx from the Lord is effected by enlightenment of the understanding and by an affection of truth, and passes by the latter into the former.


[4] (b) To believe and think, as is the truth, that all good and truth are from the Lord and all evil and falsity from hell, seems impossible, yet is truly human and hence angelic. To believe and think that all good and truth are from God seems possible, if no more is said, for it falls in with a theological belief contrary to which it is not allowable to think. But to believe and think also that all evil and falsity are from hell seems impossible, for in that belief man would not think at all. But man still thinks as from himself though it is from hell, for the Lord grants to everyone that his thought, wherever it is from, shall appear to be his own in him. Else man would not live as a human being, nor could he be led out of hell and brought into heaven, that is, be reformed, as we have shown many times.


[5] Therefore the Lord also grants man to know and consequently to think that when he is in evil he is in hell, and that if he thinks evil he thinks from hell. He likewise grants him to think of the means by which he can escape from hell and not think from hell, but enter heaven and in heaven think from the Lord, and he grants man the freedom to choose. From all this it may be seen that man can think evil and falsity as if from himself and also think that this or that is evil or false; consequently that it is only an appearance that he does so of himself, an appearance without which he would not be man.


To think from truth is what is human itself and consequently angelic itself; it is a truth that man does not think from himself, but is granted by the Lord to think from himself to all appearance.


[6] (c) So to believe and think is impossible to those who do not acknowledge the divine of the Lord and that evils are sins, but possible to those who make the two acknowledgments. It is impossible to those who do not acknowledge the divine of the Lord, for the Lord alone gives man to think and will; and those who do not acknowledge the divine of the Lord, being separated from him believe that they think for themselves. It is impossible also to those who do not acknowledge evils to be sins, for they think then from hell, and in hell everyone supposes that he thinks from himself. That it is possible, however, to those who make the two acknowledgments can be seen from what was set forth fully above (n. 288-294).


[7] (d) Only those who live in the two acknowledgments reflect on the evils in themselves, and so far as they shun and are averse to them, they send them back to hell from which they come. All know or can know that evil is from hell and good is from heaven. Who then cannot know that so far as man shuns and is averse to evil he shuns and is averse to hell? He can know then, too, that so far as he shuns and is averse to evil, he wills and loves what is good, and consequently is so far released from hell by the Lord and led to heaven. Every rational person may see these things provided he knows that heaven and hell exist, where good and evil have their respective origins. If, now, he reflects on the evils in him, which is the same thing as examining himself, and shuns them, he disengages himself from hell, puts it behind him, and brings himself into heaven, where he beholds the Lord before him. Man does this, we say, but he does it as of himself and from the Lord now. When a man acknowledges this truth out of a good heart and in a devout faith, it lies inwardly hidden in all that he thinks and does afterwards as of himself. It is like the prolific force in a seed which remains in it even until new seed is produced, and like the pleasure in one’s appetite for food, the wholesomeness of which one has learned; in a word, like heart and soul in all he thinks and does.


[8] (e) So divine providence appropriates neither evil nor good to anyone, but one’s own prudence appropriates both. This follows from all that has been said. Good is the objective of divine providence; it purposes good in all its activity, therefore. Accordingly, it does not appropriate good to anyone, for then this would become self-righteous; nor does it appropriate evil to anyone, for so it would make him responsible for evil. But man does both by his proprium, for this is nothing but evil. The proprium of the will is self-love and that of the understanding is the pride of self-intelligence, and of these comes man’s own prudence.







Every Man Can Be Reformed, and There Is No Predestination [as Commonly Understood]11



322. Sound reason dictates that all are predestined to heaven and none to hell, for all are born human beings and consequently God’s image is in them. God’s image in them consists in their ability to understand truth and to do good. The ability to understand truth comes from the divine wisdom, and the ability to do good from the divine love. This ability, which is God’s image, remains in any sane person and is not eradicated. Hence it is that he can become a civil and moral man, and one who is civil and moral can also become spiritual, for the civil and moral is a receptacle of what is spiritual. He is called a civil man who knows and lives according to the laws of the kingdom of which he is a citizen; he is called a moral man who makes those laws his ethics and his virtues and from reason lives by them.


[2] Let me say how civil and moral life is the receptacle of spiritual life. Live these laws not only as civil and moral laws but also as divine laws, and you will be a spiritual man. There is hardly a nation so barbarous that it has not by law prohibited murder, adultery, theft, false witness, and damage to what is another’s. The civil and moral man keeps these laws that he may be, or seem to be, a good citizen. If he does not consider them divine laws also he is only a civil and moral natural man, but if he considers them divine also, he becomes a civil and moral spiritual man. The difference is that the latter is a good citizen both of an earthly kingdom and of a heavenly, while the former is a good citizen only of the earthly kingdom and not of the heavenly. They are distinguishable by the good they do. The good done by civil and moral natural men is not in itself good, for man and the world are in it; the good done by civil and moral spiritual men is in itself good, because the Lord and heaven are in it.


[3] From all this it may be seen that every person, because he is born able to become a civil and moral natural being, is also born able to become a civil and moral spiritual man. He has only to acknowledge God and not commit evils because they are against God, but do good because good is siding with God. Then spirit enters into his civil and moral actions and they live; otherwise there is no spirit in them and hence they are not living. Therefore the natural man, however much he acts like a civil and moral being, is spoken of as dead, but the spiritual man is spoken of as living.


[4] Of the Lord’s divine providence every nation has some religion, and primary in every religion is the acknowledgment that God is, else it is not called a religion. Every nation that lives its religion, that is, does not do evil because this is contrary to its God, receives something spiritual in its natural life. Who, on hearing a Gentile say he will not do this or that evil because it is contrary to his God, does not say to himself, “Is this person not saved? It seems, it cannot be otherwise.” Sound reason tells him this. On the other hand, hearing a Christian say, “I make no account of this or that evil. What does it mean to say that it is contrary to God?” one says to himself, “This man is not saved, is he? It would seem, he cannot be.” Sound reason dictates this also.


[5] Should someone say, “I was born a Christian, have been baptized, have known the Lord, read the Word, observed the Sacrament of the Supper,” what does this amount to when he does not count as sins murder, or the revenge breathing it, adultery, stealing, false witness, or lying, and different sorts of violence? Does such a person think of God or of eternal life? Does he think they exist? Does sound reason not dictate that such a man cannot be saved? This has been said of a Christian, for a Gentile in his life gives more thought to God from religion than a Christian does. But more is to be said on these points in what follows in this order:


1. The goal of creation is a heaven from mankind.


2. Of divine providence, therefore, every man can be saved, and those are saved who acknowledge God and live rightly.


3. Man himself is at fault if he is not saved.


4. Thus all are predestined to heaven, and no one to hell.


323. (1) The goal of creation is a heaven from mankind. It has been shown above and in the work, Heaven and Hell (London, 1758), that heaven consists solely of those who have been born as human beings. Since heaven consists of no others, it follows that the purpose of creation is a heaven from mankind. This has been shown above (n. 27-45), it is true, but will be seen more clearly still with explanation of the following:


a. Everyone is created to live forever.


b. Everyone is created to live forever in a blessed state.


c. Thus every person has been created to enter heaven.


d. The divine love cannot but will this, and the divine wisdom cannot but provide it.


324. One can see from these points that divine providence is none other than predestination to heaven and cannot be altered into anything else. We must now demonstrate, therefore, in the order proposed, that the goal of creation is a heaven from the human race. (a) Everyone has been created to live to eternity. In the treatise Divine Love and Wisdom, chapters 3 and 5, it was shown that there are three degrees of life in man, called natural, spiritual, and celestial, that they are actually in everyone, and that in animals there is only one degree of life, which is like the lowest degree in man, called the natural.


The result is that by the elevation of his life to the Lord man is in such a state above that of animals that he can comprehend what is of divine wisdom, and will what is of divine love, in other words, receive what is divine; and he who can receive what is divine, so as to see and perceive it within him, cannot but be united with the Lord and by the union live to eternity.


[2] What would the Lord do with all the created universe if he had not also created images and likenesses of himself to whom he could communicate his divine? What would he exist for, otherwise, except to make this and not that or bring something into existence but not something else, and this merely to be able to contemplate from afar only incidents and constant changes as on a stage? What would there be divine in these unless they were for the purpose of serving subjects who would receive the divine more intimately and see and sense it? The divine is of an inexhaustible glory and would not keep it to itself, nor could. For love wants to communicate its own to another, indeed to impart all it can of itself. Must not divine love do this, then, being infinite? Can it impart and then take away? Would that not be to give what will perish, what in itself is nothing, coming to nothing when it perishes? What really is is not in it. But divine love imparts what really is or what does not cease to be, and this is eternal.


[3] In order that a man may live forever, what is mortal with him is taken away. This mortal of his is his material body, which is taken away by its death. His immortal, which is his mind, is thus laid bare and he becomes a spirit in human form; his mind is this spirit. Ancient sages and wise men perceived that man’s mind cannot die. They asked how the mind could die when it is capable of wisdom. Few today know the interior idea they had in this. It was the idea, slipping into their general perception from heaven, that God is wisdom itself, of which man partakes, and God is immortal or eternal.


[4] Since it has been granted me to speak with angels, I will say something from experience. I have spoken with those who lived many ages ago, with some who lived before the flood and some who lived after it, with some who lived at the time of the Lord and with one of his apostles, and with many who lived in the centuries since. They all seemed like men of middle age and said that they do not know what death can be unless it is condemnation. Further, all who have lived well, on coming into heaven, come into the state of early manhood in the world and continue in it to eternity, even those who had been old and decrepit in the world. Women, too, although they had become sunken and old, return into the bloom and beauty of their youth.


[5] That man lives after death to eternity is manifest from the Word, where life in heaven is called eternal life, as in Matt. 19:29, 25:46; Mark 10:17; Luke 10:25, 18:30; John 3:15, 16, 36, 5:24, 25, 39, 6:27, 40, 68, 12:50; also called simply life (Matt. 18:8, 9; John 5:40, 20:31). The Lord also told his disciples,


Because I live, you will live also (John 14:19),


and concerning resurrection said that:


God is God of the living and not God of the dead, and that they cannot die anymore (Luke 20:38, 36).


[6] (b) Everyone is created to live forever in a blessed state. This naturally follows. He who wills that man shall live forever also wills that he shall live in a blessed state. What would eternal life be without this? All love desires the good of another. The love of parents desires the good of their children, the love of the bridegroom and the husband desires the good of the bride and the wife, and love in friendship desires the good of one’s friends. What then must divine love desire! What is good but enjoyment, and divine good but eternal blessedness? All good is so named for its enjoyableness or blessedness.


True, anything one is given or possesses is also called good, but again, unless it is enjoyable, it is a barren good, not in itself good. Clearly, then, eternal life is also eternal blessedness. This state of man is the aim of creation; that only those who come into heaven are in that state is not the Lord’s fault but man’s. That man is at fault will be seen in what follows.


[7] (c) Thus every person has been created to come into heaven. This is the goal of creation, but not all enter heaven, because they become imbued with the enjoyments of hell, the opposite of heavenly blessedness. Those who are not in the blessedness of heaven cannot enter heaven, for they cannot endure doing so. No one who comes into the spiritual world is refused ascent into heaven, but when one ascends who is in the enjoyment of hell his heart pounds, his breathing labors, his life ebbs, he is in anguish and torment and writhes like a snake placed near a fire. This happens because opposites act against each other.


[8] Nevertheless, having been born human beings, consequently with the faculties of thought and volition and hence of speech and action, they cannot die, but they can live only with those in a similar enjoyment of life and are sent to them, those in enjoyments of evil to their like, as those in enjoyments of good are to their like. Indeed, everyone is granted the enjoyment of his evil provided that he does not molest those who are in the enjoyment of good. Still, as evil is bound to molest good, for inherently it hates good, those who are in evil are removed lest they inflict injury and are cast down to their own places in hell, where their enjoyment is turned into joylessness.


[9] But this does not alter the fact that by creation and hence by birth man is such that he can enter heaven. For everyone who dies in infancy enters heaven, is brought up there and instructed as one is in the world, and by the affection of good and truth is imbued with wisdom and becomes an angel. So could the man become who is brought up and instructed in the world; the same is in him as in an infant. On infants in the spiritual world see the work Heaven and Hell, London, 1758 (n. 329-345).


[10] This does not take place, however, with many in the world because they love the first level of their life, called natural, and do not purpose to withdraw from it and become spiritual. The natural degree of life, in itself regarded, loves only self and the world, for it keeps close to the bodily senses, which are to the fore, also, in the world. But the spiritual degree of life regarded in itself loves the Lord and heaven, and self and the world, too, but God and heaven as higher, paramount, and controlling, and self and the world as lower, instrumental, and subservient.


[11] (d) Divine love cannot do otherwise than will this, and divine wisdom cannot do otherwise than provide it. It was fully shown in the treatise Divine Love and Wisdom that the divine essence is divine love and wisdom, and it was also demonstrated there (n. 358-370) that in every human embryo the Lord forms two receptacles, one of the divine love and the other of the divine wisdom, the former for man’s future will and the latter for his future understanding, and that in this way the Lord has endowed each human being with the faculty of willing good and the faculty of understanding truth.


[12] Inasmuch as man is endowed from birth with these two faculties by the Lord, and the Lord then is in them as in what is his own with man, it is manifest that his divine love cannot but will that man should come into heaven and his divine wisdom cannot but provide for this. But since it is of the Lord’s divine love that man should feel heavenly blessedness in himself as his own, and this cannot be unless man is kept in the appearance that he thinks, wills, speaks, and acts of himself, the Lord can therefore lead man only according to the laws of his divine providence.


325. (2) Because of divine providence, therefore, every man can be saved, and those are saved who acknowledge God and live rightly. It is plain from what has been demonstrated above that every human being can be saved. Some persons suppose that the Lord’s church is to be found only in Christendom, because only there is the Lord known and the Word possessed. Still many believe that the Lord’s church is general, that is, extends and is scattered throughout the world, existing thus with those who do not know the Lord or possess the Word. They say that those men are not at fault and are without means to overcome their ignorance. They believe that it is contrary to God’s love and mercy that any should be born for hell who are equally human beings.


[2] Inasmuch as many Christians, if not all, have faith that the church is common to many—it is in fact called a communion— there must be some very widely shared things of the church that enter all religions and that constitute this communion. These most widely shared factors are acknowledgment of God and good of life, as will be seen in this order:


a. Acknowledgment of God effects a conjunction of God and man; denial of God causes disjunction.


b. Each one acknowledges God and is conjoined with him in accord with the goodness of his life.


c. Goodness of life, or living rightly, is shunning evils because they are contrary to religion, thus to God.


d. These are factors common to all religions, and by them anyone can be saved.


326. To clarify and demonstrate these propositions one by one.


(a) Acknowledgment of God brings conjunction of God and man; denial of God results in disjunction. Some may think that those who do not acknowledge God can be saved equally with those who do, if they lead a moral life. They ask, “What does acknowledgment accomplish? Is it not merely a thought? Can I not acknowledge God when I learn for certain that God exists? I have heard of him but not seen him. Let me see him and I will believe.” Such is the language of many who deny God when they have an opportunity to argue with one who acknowledges God. But that an acknowledgment of God conjoins and denial disjoins will be clarified by some things made known to me in the spiritual world. In that world when anyone thinks of another and desires to speak with him, the other is at once present. The explanation is that there is no distance in the spiritual world such as there is in the natural, but only an appearance of distance.


[2] A second phenomenon: as thought from some acquaintance with another causes his presence, love from affection for another causes conjunction with him. So spirits move about, converse as friends, dwell together in one house or in one community, meet often, and render one another services. The opposite happens, also; one who does not love another and still more one who hates another does not see or encounter him; the distance between them is according to the degree in which love is wanting or hatred is present. Indeed, one who is present and recalls his hatred, vanishes.


[3] From these few particulars it may be evident whence presence and conjunction come in the spiritual world. Presence comes with the recollection of another with a desire to see him, and conjunction comes of an affection which springs from love. This is true also of all things in the human mind. There are countless things in the mind, and its least parts are associated and conjoined in accord with affections or as one thing attracts another.


[4] This is spiritual conjunction and it is the same in things large and things small. It has its origin in the conjunction of the Lord with the spiritual world and the natural world in general and in detail. It is manifest from this that in the measure in which one knows the Lord and thinks of him from knowledge of him, in that measure the Lord is present, and in the measure in which one acknowledges him from an affection of love, in that measure the Lord is united with him. On the other hand, in the measure of one’s ignorance of the Lord, in that measure he is absent; and so far as one denies him, so far is he separated from one.


[5] The result of conjunction is that the Lord turns man’s face towards himself and thereupon leads him; the disjunction results in hell’s turning man’s face to it and it leads him. Therefore all the angels of heaven turn their faces towards the Lord as the sun, and all the spirits of hell avert their faces from the Lord. It is plain from this what the acknowledgment of God and the denial of God each accomplish. Those who deny God in the world deny him after death also; they have become organized as described above (n. 319); the organization induced in the world remains to eternity.


[6] (b) Everyone acknowledges God and is conjoined with him according to the goodness of his life. All who know something of religion can know God; from information or from the memory they can also speak about God, and some may also think about him from the understanding. But this only brings about presence if a man does not live rightly, for despite it all he can turn away from God and towards hell, and this takes place if he lives wickedly. Only those who live rightly can acknowledge God with the heart, and these the Lord turns away from hell and towards himself according to the goodness of their life. For these alone love God; for in doing what comes from him they love what is divine. The precepts of his law are divine things from him. They are God because he is his own proceeding divine. As this is to love God, the Lord says:


He who keeps my commandments is he who loves me . . . But he who does not keep my commandments does not love me (John 14:21, 24).


[7] Here is the reason why there are two tables of the Decalogue, one having reference to God and the other to man. God works unceasingly that man may receive what is in his table, but if man does not do what he is bidden in his own table he does not receive with acknowledgment of heart what is in God’s table, and if he does not receive this he is not conjoined. The two tables were joined, therefore, to be one and are called the tables of the covenant; covenant means conjunction. One acknowledges God and is conjoined to him in accord with the goodness of his life because this good is like the good in the Lord and consequently comes from the Lord. So when man is in the good of life there is conjunction. The contrary takes place with evil of life; it rejects the Lord.


[8] (c) Goodness of life, or living rightly, is shunning evils because they are contrary to religion, thus to God. That this is good of life or living rightly is fully shown in Doctrine of Life for the New Jerusalem, from beginning to end. To this I will only add that if you do good aplenty, build churches for instance, adorn them and fill them with offerings, spend money lavishly on hospitals and hostels, give alms daily, aid widows and orphans, diligently observe the sanctities of worship, indeed think and speak and preach about them as from the heart, and yet do not shun evils as sins against God, all those good deeds are not goodness. They are either hypocritical or done for merit, for evil is still deep in them. Everyone’s life pervades all that he does. Goods become good only by the removal of evil from them. Plainly, then, shunning evils because they are contrary to religion and thus to God is living rightly.


[9] (d) These are factors common to all religions, and anyone can be saved by them. To acknowledge God, and to refrain from evil because it is contrary to God, are the two acts that make religion to be religion. If one is lacking, it cannot be called religion, for to acknowledge God and to do evil is a contradiction; so it is, too, to do good and yet not acknowledge God; one is impossible apart from the other.


The Lord has provided that there should be some religion almost everywhere and that these two elements should be in it, and has also provided that everyone who acknowledges God and refrains from doing evil because it is against God shall have a place in heaven. For heaven as a whole is like one man whose life or soul is the Lord. In that heavenly man are all things to be found in a natural man with the difference which obtains between the heavenly and the natural.


[10] It is a matter of common knowledge that in the human being there are not only forms organized of blood vessels and nerve fibers, but also skins, membranes, tendons, cartilages, bones, nails, and teeth. These have a smaller measure of life than those organized forms, which they serve as ligaments, coverings, or supports. For all these entities to be in the heavenly humanity, which is heaven, it cannot be made up of human beings all of one religion, but of men of many religions. Therefore all who make these two universals of the church part of their lives have a place in this heavenly man, that is, heaven, and enjoy happiness each in his measure. More on the subject may be seen above (n. 254).


[11] That these two are primary in all religion is evident from the fact that they are the two which the Decalogue teaches. The Decalogue was the first of the Word, promulgated by Jehovah from Mount Sinai by a living voice, and also inscribed on two tables of stone by the finger of God. Then, placed in the ark, the Decalogue was called Jehovah, and it made the holy of holies in the tabernacle and the shrine in the temple of Jerusalem; all things in each were holy only on account of it. Much more about the Decalogue in the ark is to be had from the Word, which is cited in Doctrine of Life for the New Jerusalem (n. 53-61). To that I will add this.


From the Word we know that the ark with the two tablets in it on which the Decalogue was written was captured by the Philistines and placed in the temple of Dagon in Ashdod; that Dagon fell to the ground before it, and afterward his head, together with the palms of the hands, torn from his body, lay on the temple threshold; that the people of Ashdod and Ekron to the number of many thousands were smitten with hemorrhoids and their land was ravaged by mice; that on the advice of the chiefs of their nation, the Philistines made five golden hemorrhoids, five golden mice and a new cart, and on this placed the ark with the golden hemorrhoids and mice beside it; with two cows that lowed before the cart along the way, they sent the ark back to the children of Israel and by them cows and cart were offered in sacrifice (1 Sam. 5 and 6).


[12] To state now what all this signified: the Philistines signified those who are in faith separated from charity; Dagon signified that religiosity; the hemorrhoids by which they were smitten signified natural loves which when severed from spiritual love are unclean, and the mice signified the devastation of the church by falsification of truth. The new cart on which the Philistines sent back the ark signified a new but still natural doctrine (chariot in the Word signifies doctrine from spiritual truths), and the cows signified good natural affections. Hemorrhoids of gold signified natural loves purified and made good, and the golden mice signified an end to the devastation of the church by means of good, for in the Word gold signifies good. The lowing of the cattle on the way signified the difficult conversion of the lusts of evil of the natural man into good affections. That cows and cart were offered up as a burnt offering signified that so the Lord was propitiated.


[13] This is how what is told historically is understood spiritually. Gather all into a single conception and make the application. That those who are in faith severed from charity are represented by the Philistines, see Doctrine of the New Jerusalem on Faith (n. 49-54), and that the ark was the most holy thing of the church because of the Decalogue enclosed in it, see Doctrine of Life for the New Jerusalem (n. 53-61).


327. (3) Man himself is at fault if he is not saved. As soon as he hears it any rational man acknowledges the truth that evil cannot issue from good nor good from evil, for they are opposites; consequently only good comes of good and only evil of evil. When this truth is acknowledged this also is: that good can be turned into evil not by a good but by an evil recipient; for any form changes into its own nature what flows into it (see above, n. 292).


Inasmuch as the Lord is good in its very essence or good itself, plainly evil cannot issue from him or be produced by him, but good can be turned into evil by a recipient subject whose form is a form of evil. Such a subject is man as to his proprium. This constantly receives good from the Lord and constantly turns it into the nature of its own form, which is one of evil. It follows that man is at fault if he is not saved. Evil is indeed from hell but as man receives it from hell as his and appropriates it to himself, it is the same whether one says that evil is from man or from hell. But whence there is an appropriation of evil until finally religion perishes will be told in this order:


a. Every religion declines and comes to an end in the course of time.


b. It does so through the inversion of God’s image in man.


c. This takes place through a continual increase of hereditary evil over the generations.


d. Nevertheless the Lord provides that everyone may be saved.


e. It is also provided that a new church shall succeed in place of the former devastated church.


328. These points are to be demonstrated in the order given.


(a) Every religion declines and comes to an end in the course of time. There have been several churches on this earth, one after another, for wherever mankind is, a church is. For, as was shown above, heaven, which is the goal of creation, is from mankind, and no one can enter heaven unless he is in the two universal marks of the church which, as was shown just above (n. 326), are the acknowledgment of God and living aright. It follows that there have been churches on this earth from the most ancient times to the present. These churches are described in the Word, but not historically except the Israelitish and Jewish church. There were churches before it which are only described in the Word under the names of nations and persons and in a few items about them.


[2] The first, the most ancient church, is described under the names of Adam and his wife Eve. The next church, to be called the ancient church, is described by Noah, his three sons, and their posterity. This church was widespread and extended over many of the kingdoms of Asia: the land of Canaan on both sides of the Jordan, Syria, Assyria and Chaldea, Mesopotamia, Egypt, Arabia, Tyre and Sidon. These had the ancient Word (Doctrine of the New Jerusalem about Sacred Scripture, n. 101-103). That this church existed in those kingdoms is evident from various things recorded about them in the prophetic parts of the Word. This church was markedly altered by Eber, from whom arose the Hebrew church, in which worship by sacrifices was first instituted. From the Hebrew church the Israelitish and Jewish church was born and solemnly established for the sake of the Word which was composed in it.


[3] These four churches are meant by the statue seen by Nebuchadnezzar in a dream, the head of which was of pure gold, the breast and arms of silver, the belly and thighs of brass, and the legs and feet of iron and clay (Dan. 2:32, 33). Nor is anything else meant by the golden, silver, copper, and iron ages mentioned by ancient writers. Needless to say, the Christian church succeeded the Jewish. It can be seen from the Word that all these churches declined in the course of time, eventually coming to an end, called their consummation.


[4] The consummation of the most ancient church, brought about by the eating of the tree of knowledge, meaning by the pride of one’s own intelligence, is depicted by the Flood. The consummation of the ancient church is depicted in the various devastations of nations mentioned in the historical as well as the prophetic Word and especially by the expulsion of the nations from the land of Canaan by the children of Israel. The consummation of the Israelitish and Jewish church is understood by the destruction of the temple at Jerusalem and by the carrying away of the people of Israel into permanent captivity and of the Jewish nation to Babylon, and finally by the second destruction of the temple and of Jerusalem at the same time, and by the dispersion of that nation. This consummation is foretold in many places in the Prophets and in Daniel 9:24-27. The gradual devastation of the Christian church even to its end is pictured by the Lord in Matthew 24, Mark 13, and Luke 21, but the end itself in Revelation. Hence it may be manifest that in the course of time a church declines and comes to an end; so does a religion.


[5] (b) Every religion declines and comes to an end through the inversion of God’s image in man. It is known that the human being was created in the image and after the likeness of God (Gen. 1:26), but let us say what the image and the likeness of God are. God alone is love and wisdom; man was created to be a receptacle of both love and wisdom, his will to be a receptacle of divine love, and his understanding a receptacle of the divine wisdom. These two receptacles, it was shown above, are in man from creation, constitute him, and are formed in everyone in the womb. Man’s being an image of God thus means that he is a recipient of the divine wisdom, and his being a likeness of God means that he is a recipient of the divine love.


Therefore the receptacle called the understanding is an image of God, and the receptacle called the will is a likeness of God. Since, then, man was created and formed to be a receptacle, it follows that he was created and formed that his will might receive love from God and his understanding wisdom from God. He receives these when he acknowledges God and lives according to his precepts, receiving them in lesser or larger measure as by religion he has some knowledge of God and of his precepts, consequently according to his knowledge of truths. For truths teach what God is and how he is to be acknowledged, also what his precepts are and how man is to live according to them.


[6] The image and likeness of God have not been destroyed in man, but seem to have been; they remain inherent in his two faculties called liberty and rationality, of which we have treated above at many places. They seem to have been destroyed when man made the receptacle of divine love, namely, his will, a receptacle of self-love, and the receptacle of divine wisdom, namely, his understanding, a receptacle of his own intelligence. Doing this, he inverted the image and likeness of God and turned these receptacles away from God and towards himself. Consequently they have become closed above and open below, or closed in front and open behind, though by creation they were open in front and closed behind. When they have been opened and closed contrariwise, the receptacle of love, the will, receives influx from hell or from one’s proprium; so does the receptacle of wisdom, the understanding. Hence worship of men arose in the churches instead of the worship of God, and worship by doctrines of falsity instead of worship by doctrines of truth, the latter arising from man’s own intelligence, and the former from love of self. Thence it is evident that religion falls away in the course of time and is ended by the inversion of God’s image in man.


[7] (c) This takes place as a result of a continual increase of hereditary evil over the generations. It was said and explained above that hereditary evil does not come from Adam and his wife Eve by their having eaten of the tree of knowledge, but is derived and transmitted successively from parents to offspring. Thus it grows by continual increase from generation to generation. When evil increases so among many, it spreads to many more, for in all evil there is a lust to lead astray, in some burning with anger against goodness—hence a contagion of evil. When the contagion reaches leaders, rulers, and the prominent in the church, religion has become perverted, and the means of restoring it to health, namely truths, become corrupted by falsifications. As a result there is a gradual devastation of good and desolation of truth in the church on to its end.


[8] (d) Nevertheless the Lord provides that everyone may be saved. He provides that there shall be religion everywhere and in it the two essentials for salvation, acknowledgment of God and ceasing from evil because it is contrary to God. Other things, which pertain to the understanding and hence to the thinking, called matters of faith, are provided everyone in accord with his life, for they are accessory to life and if they have been given precedence, do not become living until they are subsidiary. It is also provided that those who have lived rightly and acknowledged God are instructed by angels after death. Then those who were in the two essentials of religion while in the world accept such truths of the church as are in the Word, and acknowledge the Lord as God of heaven and of the church. This last they receive more readily than do Christians who have brought with them from the world an idea of the Lord’s human nature parted from his divine. It is also provided by the Lord that all are saved who die as infants, no matter where they have been born.


[9] Furthermore, every person is given the opportunity after death of amending his life if possible. All are instructed and led by the Lord by means of angels. Knowing now that they live after death and that heaven and hell exist, they at first receive truths. But those who did not acknowledge God and shun evils as sins when in the world soon show a distaste for truths and draw back, and those who acknowledged truths with the lips but not with the heart are like the foolish virgins who had lamps but no oil and begged oil of others, also went off and bought some, but still were not admitted to the wedding. “Lamps” signify truths of faith and “oil” signifies the good of charity. It may be evident then that divine providence sees to it that everyone can be saved and that man is himself at fault if he is not saved.


[10] (e) It is also provided that a new church shall succeed in place of a former devastated church. It has been so from the most ancient days that on the devastation of a church a new one followed. The ancient church succeeded the most ancient; the Israelitish or Jewish church followed the ancient; after this came the Christian church. And this, it is foretold in Revelation, will be followed by a new church, signified in that book by the new Jerusalem descending from heaven. The reason why a new church is provided by the Lord to follow in place of a former devastated church may be seen in Doctrine of the New Jerusalem about Sacred Scripture (n. 104-113).


329. (4) Thus all are predestined to heaven, and no one to hell. In the work Heaven and Hell we showed at n. 545-550 that the Lord casts no one into hell; the spirit himself does this. So it happens with every evil and impious person after death and also while he is in the world, with the difference that while he is in the world he can be reformed and can embrace and avail himself of the means of salvation, but not after departure from the world.


The means of salvation are summed up in these two: that evils are to be shunned because they are contrary to the divine laws in the Decalogue and that it be acknowledged that God exists. Everyone can do both if he does not love evils. For the Lord is constantly flowing into his will with power for shunning evils and into his understanding with power to think that God exists. But no one can do the one without doing the other; the two are joined together like the two tables of the Decalogue, one relating to God and the other to man. In accordance with what is in his table the Lord enlightens and empowers everyone, but man receives power and enlightenment so far as he does what he is bidden in his table. Until then the two tables appear to be laid face to face and to be sealed, but as man acts on the biddings in his table they are unsealed and opened out.


[2] Today is not the Decalogue like a small, closed book or document, opened only in the hands of children and the young? Tell someone farther along in years, “Do not do this because it is contrary to the Decalogue” and who gives heed? He may give heed if you say, “Do not do this because it is contrary to divine laws,” and yet the precepts of the Decalogue are the divine laws themselves. Experiment was made with a number in the spiritual world, who at mention of the Decalogue or catechism rejected it with contempt. This is because in the second table, which is man’s, the Decalogue teaches that evils are to be shunned, and one who does not do so, whether from impiety or from the religious tenet that deeds effect nothing, only faith does, hears mention of the Decalogue or Catechism with disdain, as though it was a child’s book he heard mentioned, no longer of use to adults.


[3] These things have been said in order that it may be known that a knowledge of the means by which one can be saved is not lacking to anyone, nor power if he wants to be saved. It follows that all are predestined to heaven and no one to hell. Since, however, a belief in a predestination not to salvation but to damnation has prevailed with some, and this belief is damaging and cannot be broken up unless one’s reason sees the insanity and cruelty in it, it is to be dealt with in this order:


a. Predestination except to heaven is contrary to divine love and its infiniteness.


b. Predestination other than to heaven is contrary to divine wisdom and its infiniteness.


c. That only those born in the church are saved is an insane heresy.


d. That any of mankind are condemned by predestination is a cruel heresy.


330. That it may be apparent how damaging the belief is in predestination as this is commonly understood, these four arguments are to be taken up and confirmed. (a) Predestination except to heaven is contrary to divine love and its infiniteness. In the treatise Divine Love and Wisdom we demonstrated that Jehovah or the Lord is divine love, is infinite, and is the esse of all life; also that the human being was created in God’s image after God’s likeness. As everyone is formed in the womb by the Lord into that image and after that likeness, as was also shown, the Lord is the heavenly Father of all human beings and they are his spiritual children. So Jehovah or the Lord is called in the Word, and so human beings are. Therefore he says:


Do not call your father on earth your father, for one is your Father, who is in the heavens (Matt. 23:9).


This means that he alone is the Father with reference to the life in us, and the earthly father is father of the covering on life, which is the body. In heaven, therefore, no one but the Lord is called Father. And from many passages in the Word it is clear that those who do not pervert that life are said to be his sons and to be born from him.


[2] Plainly, then, the divine love is in every man, an evil man as well as a good man, and the Lord who is divine love cannot act otherwise than a father on earth does with his children, infinitely more lovingly because divine love is infinite. Furthermore, he cannot withdraw from anyone because everyone’s life is from him. He appears to withdraw from those who are evil, but it is they who withdraw, while he still in love leads them. Thus the Lord says:


Ask, and it shall be given you; seek and you will find; knock and it shall be opened to you . . . What man of you, if his son shall ask bread, will give him a stone? If you, then, who are evil, know how to give good things to your children, how much more shall your Father, who is in heaven, give good things to those who ask him (Matt. 7:7-11).


He makes his sun to rise on the evil and the good, and sends rain on the just and unjust (Matt. 5:45).


It is also known in the church that the Lord desires the salvation of all and the death of no one. It may be seen from all this that predestination except to heaven is contrary to divine love.


[3] (b) Predestination other than to heaven is contrary to divine wisdom, which is infinite. By its divine wisdom divine love provides the means by which every man can be saved. To say that there is any predestination except to heaven is therefore to say that divine love cannot provide means to salvation, when yet the means exist for all, as was shown above, and these are of divine providence which is boundless. The reason that there are those who are not saved is that divine love desires man to feel the felicity and blessedness of heaven for himself, else it would not be heaven to him, and this can be effected only as it seems to man that he thinks and wills of himself. For without this appearance nothing would be appropriated to him nor would he be a human being. To this end divine providence exists, which acts by divine wisdom out of divine love.


[4] But this does not do away with the truth that all are predestined to heaven and no one to hell. Were the means to salvation lacking, it would; but, as was demonstrated above, the means to salvation have been provided for everyone, and heaven is such that all of whatever religion who live rightly have a place in it. Man is like the earth which produces fruits of every kind, a power the earth has as the earth. That it also produces evil fruits does not do away with its capability of producing good fruits; it would if it could only produce evil fruits. Or, again, man is like an object which variegates the rays of light in it. If the object gives only unpleasing colors, the light is not the cause, for its rays can be variegated to produce pleasing colors.


[5] (c) That only those who have been born in the church are saved is an insane heresy. Those born outside the church are human beings equally with those born within it; they have the same heavenly origin, and like them they are living and immortal souls. They also have some religion by virtue of which they acknowledge God’s existence and that they should live aright. One who acknowledges God and lives aright becomes spiritual in his measure and is saved, as we showed above. It may be protested that they have not been baptized, but baptism does not save any who are not washed spiritually, that is, regenerated, of which baptism is a sign and reminder.


[6] It is also objected that the Lord is not known to them and that there is no salvation without him. But salvation does not come to a person because the Lord is known to him, but because he lives according to the Lord’s precepts. Moreover, the Lord is known to everyone who acknowledges God, for he is God of heaven and earth, as he himself teaches (Matt. 28:18 and elsewhere).


Furthermore, those outside the church have a clearer idea about God as Man than Christians have, and those who have a concept of God as Man and live rightly are accepted by the Lord. They also acknowledge God as one in person and essence, differently from Christians. They also give thought to God in their lives, for they regard evils as sins against God, and those who do this regard God in their lives. Christians have precepts of religion from the Word, but few draw precepts of life from it.


[7] Roman Catholics do not read the Word, and the Reformed who are in faith apart from charity do not attend to those utterances in it which concern life, only to those which concern faith, and yet the Word as a whole is nothing else than a doctrine of life. Christianity obtains only in Europe; Mohammedanism and Gentilism are found in Asia, the Indies, Africa, and America, and the people in these parts of the globe are ten times more numerous than those in the Christian part, and in this part few put religion in life. What then is more mad than to believe that only these latter are saved and the former condemned, and that a man has heaven on the strength of his birth and not on the strength of his life? So the Lord says:


I say to you, many will come from the east and the west, and recline with Abraham, Isaac and Jacob in the kingdom of heaven; but the children of the kingdom shall be cast out (Matt. 8:11, 12).


[8] (d) That any of mankind are condemned by predestination is a cruel heresy. For it is cruel to believe that the Lord, who is love itself and mercy itself, suffers so vast a throng of persons to be born for hell or so many myriads of myriads to be born condemned and doomed, that is, to be born devils and satans, and that he does not provide out of his divine wisdom that those who live aright and acknowledge God should not be cast into everlasting fire and torment. The Lord is still the creator and the savior of all men and wills the death of no one. It is cruel therefore to believe and think that a vast multitude of nations and peoples under his auspices and care should be handed over as prey to the devil by predestination.







The Lord Cannot Act Contrary to the Laws of Divine Providence Because to Do So Would Be to Act Contrary to His Divine Love and Wisdom, Thus Contrary to Himself



331. It was shown in Angelic Wisdom about Divine Love and Wisdom that the Lord is divine love and wisdom, and that these are being itself and life itself from which everything is and lives. It was also shown that they proceed from him, so that the proceeding divine is the Lord himself. Paramount in what proceeds is divine providence, for this is constantly in the end for which the universe was created. The operation and progress of the end through means is what is called divine providence.


[2] Inasmuch as the proceeding divine is the Lord himself and paramount in it is divine providence, to act contrary to the laws of his divine providence is to act contrary to himself. One can also say that the Lord is providence just as one says that God is order, for divine providence is the divine order with reference primarily to the salvation of men. As order does not exist without laws, for they constitute it, and each law derives from order that it, too, is order, it follows that God, who is order, is also the law of his order. Similarly it is to be said of divine providence that as the Lord is providence himself, he is also the law of his providence. Hence it is clear that the Lord cannot act contrary to the laws of his divine providence because to do so would be to act contrary to himself.


[3] Furthermore, there is no activity except on a subject and on the subject by means; action is impossible except on a subject and on it by means. Man is the subject of divine providence; divine truths by which he has wisdom, and divine goods by which he has love, are the means; and by these means divine providence pursues its purpose, which is the salvation of man. For he who wills the purpose, wills the means. Therefore when he who wills the purpose pursues it, he does so through means. But these things will become plainer on being examined in this order:


1. The activity of divine providence to save man begins at his birth and continues to the close of his life and afterwards to eternity.


2. The activity of divine providence is maintained steadily out of pure mercy through means.


3. Instantaneous salvation by direct mercy is impossible.


4. Instantaneous salvation by direct mercy is the flying fiery serpent in the church.


332. (1) The activity of divine providence to save man begins at his birth and continues to the close of his life and afterwards to eternity.


It was shown above that a heaven from mankind is the very purpose of the creation of the universe; that this purpose in its operation and progress is the divine providence for the salvation of man; and that all which is external to man and available to him for use is a secondary end in creation—in brief, all that is to be found in the three kingdoms, animal, vegetable, and mineral. When all this constantly proceeds according to laws of divine order fixed at the first of creation, how can the primary end, which is the salvation of the human race, fail to proceed constantly according to laws of its order, which are the laws of divine providence?


[2] Observe just a fruit tree. It springs up first as a slender shoot from a tiny seed, grows gradually into a stalk, spreads branches which become covered with leaves, and then puts forth flowers and bears fruit, in which it deposits fresh seed to provide for its perpetuation. This is also true of every shrub and of every herb of the field. Do not each and all things in tree or shrub proceed constantly and wonderfully from purpose to purpose according to the laws of their order of things? Why should not the supreme end, a heaven from the human race, proceed in similar fashion? Can there be anything in its progress which does not proceed with all constancy according to the laws of divine providence?


[3] As there is a correspondence of man’s life with the growth of a tree, let us draw the parallel or make the comparison. His infancy is relatively like the tender shoot of the tree sprouting from seed out of the ground; his childhood and youth are like the shoot grown to a stalk with its small branches; the natural truths with which everyone is imbued at first are like the leaves with which the branches are covered (“leaves” signify precisely this in the Word); man’s first steps in the marriage of good and truth or the spiritual marriage are like the blossoms which the tree puts forth in the springtime; spiritual truths are the petals in these blossoms; the earliest signs of the spiritual marriage are like the start of fruit; spiritual goods, which are goods of charity, are like the fruit (they are also signified in the Word by “fruits”); the procreations of wisdom from love are like the seed and by them the human being becomes like a garden or paradise. Man is also described in the Word by a tree, and his wisdom from love by a garden; nothing else is meant by the Garden of Eden.


[4] True, man is a corrupt tree from the seed, but still a grafting or budding with shoots taken from the Tree of Life is possible, by which the sap drawn from the old root is turned into sap producing good fruit. The comparison was drawn for it to be known that when the progression of divine providence is so constant in the growth and rebirth of trees, it surely must be constant in the reformation and rebirth of human beings, who are of much more value than trees; so the Lord’s words:


Are not five sparrows sold for two farthings, yet not one of them is forgotten by God? But even the hairs of your head are all numbered; fear not therefore; you are of more value than many sparrows. Which of you moreover can by taking thought add a cubit to his stature? . . . If then you are unable to do what is least, why do you take thought for the rest? Consider the lilies, how they grow . . . If then God so clothed the grass, which is in the field today and is cast into an oven tomorrow, how much more will he clothe you, O men of little faith? (Luke 12:6, 7, 25-28).


333. The activity of divine providence for man’s salvation is said to begin with his birth and continue to the close of his life. For this to be understood, it should be known that the Lord sees what a man’s nature is and foresees what he wills to be and thus what he will be. For him to be man and thus immortal, his freedom of will cannot be taken away. The Lord therefore foresees his state after death and provides for it from the man’s birth to the close of his life. With the evil he makes the provision by permitting and withdrawing from evils, in the case of the good by leading to good. Divine providence is thus continually acting for man’s salvation, but more cannot be saved than are willing to be saved, and those are willing who acknowledge God and are led by him. Those are not willing who do not acknowledge God and who lead themselves. The latter give no thought to eternal life and to salvation, the former do. The Lord sees the unwillingness but still he leads such men, and does so in accordance with the laws of his divine providence, contrary to which he cannot act, for to act contrary to them would be to act contrary to his divine love and wisdom, and this is to act contrary to himself.


[2] Inasmuch as the Lord foresees the states of all after death, and also foresees the places in hell of those who do not desire to be saved and the places in heaven of those who do desire to be saved, it follows that he provides their places for the evil by the permitting and withdrawing of which we spoke, and their places for the good by leading them. Unless this was done steadily from birth to the close of life neither heaven nor hell would remain standing, for apart from this foresight and providence neither would be anything but confusion. It may be seen above (n. 202, 203) that everyone has his place provided for him by the Lord through this foresight.


[3] A comparison may throw light on this. If a javelin thrower or a marksman should aim at a target, from which a line was drawn straight back for a mile and should err in aim by only a finger’s breadth, the missile or the bullet at the end of the mile would have deviated very far from the line. So would it be if the Lord did not, at every moment and even the least fraction of a moment, look to what is eternal in foreseeing and making provision for one’s place after death. But this the Lord does: the entire future is present to him, and the entire present is to him eternal. That divine providence looks in all it does to what is infinite and eternal, may be seen above, n. 46-49, 214ff.


334. As was said also, the activity of divine providence continues to eternity, for every angel is being perfected in wisdom to eternity, each, however, according to the degree of affection of good and truth in which he was when he left this world. It is this degree that is perfected to eternity; what is beyond that is outside the angel and not in him, and what is external to him cannot be perfected in him. This perfecting is meant by the “Good measure, pressed down and shaken together and running over” which will be given into the bosom of those who forgive and give to others (Luke 6:37, 38); that is, those who are in the good of charity.


335. (2) The activity of divine providence is maintained steadily out of pure mercy through means. Divine providence has means and methods. Its means are the things by which man becomes man and is perfected in will and understanding; its methods are the ways this is accomplished. The means by which man becomes man and is perfected in understanding are collectively called truths. In the thought they become ideas, are called objects of the memory, and in themselves are forms of knowledge from which information comes. All these means, viewed in themselves, are spiritual, but as they exist in what is natural, they seem by reason of their covering or clothing to be natural and some of them seem to be material. They are infinite in number and variety, and more or less simple or composite, and also more or less imperfect or perfect. There are means for forming and perfecting natural civil life; likewise for forming and perfecting rational moral life; as there are for forming and perfecting heavenly spiritual life.


[2] These means advance, one kind after another, from infancy to the last of man’s life, and thereafter to eternity. As they come along and mount, the earlier ones become means to the later, entering into all that is forming as mediate causes. From these every effect or conclusion is efficacious and therefore becomes a cause. In turn what is later becomes means; and as this goes on to eternity, there is nothing farthest on or final to make an end. For as what is eternal is without end, so a wisdom that increases to eternity is without end. If there were an end to wisdom for a wise man, the enjoyment of his wisdom would perish, which consists in the perpetual multiplication and fructification of wisdom. His life’s enjoyment would also perish; in its place an enjoyment of glory would succeed, in which by itself there is no heavenly life. The wise man then becomes no longer like a youth but like an old man, and at length like a decrepit one.


[3] Although a wise man’s wisdom increases forever in heaven, angelic wisdom cannot approximate the divine wisdom so much as to touch it. It is relatively like what is said of a straight line drawn around a hyperbola, always approaching but never touching it, and like what is said about squaring a circle. Hence it may be plain what is meant by the means by which divine providence acts in order that man may be man and be perfected in understanding, and that these means are called by the common term truths. There are an equal number of means by which man is formed and perfected as to his will. These are called collectively goods. By them man comes to have love, by the others wisdom. The conjunction of love and wisdom makes the man, for what he is is in keeping with the nature of this conjunction. This conjunction is what is called the marriage of good and truth.


336. The methods by which divine providence acts on and through the means to form and perfect the human being are also infinite in number and variety. They are as numerous as the activities of divine wisdom from divine love to save man, and therefore as numerous as the activities of divine providence in accordance with its laws, treated of above. That these methods are most secret was illustrated above by the activities of the soul in the body, of which man knows so little it is scarcely anything—how, for instance, eye, ear, nose, tongue, and skin sense things; how the stomach digests; how the mesentery elaborates the chyle and the liver the blood; how the pancreas and the spleen purify the blood, the kidneys separate it from impure humors, the heart collects and distributes it, and the lungs purify it and pass it on; how the brain refines the blood and vivifies it anew; besides innumerable other things which are all secret, and of which one can scarcely know. Clearly, the hidden activities of divine providence can be entered into even less; it is enough to know its laws.


337. Divine providence acts in all things out of pure mercy. For the divine essence is itself pure love; this love acts through divine wisdom and its activity is what is called divine providence. This pure love is pure mercy because: (a) It is active with all men the world over, who are such that they can do nothing of themselves. (b) It is active with the evil and unjust and the good and just alike. (c) It leads the former in hell and rescues them from it. (d) It strives with them there perpetually and fights for them against the devil, that is, against the evils of hell. (e) To this end pure love came into the world and endured temptations even to the last of them, which was the passion of the cross. (f) It acts continually with the unclean to make them clean and with the unsound to make them sound in mind. Thus it labors incessantly out of pure mercy.


338. (3) Instantaneous salvation by direct mercy is impossible. We have just shown that the activity of divine providence to save man begins at his birth and continues to the close of his life and afterwards to eternity; also that this activity is continually pursued out of pure mercy through means. It follows that there is neither instantaneous salvation nor unmediated mercy. But as many, not thinking from the understanding about things of the church or of religion, believe that they are saved by immediate mercy and hence that salvation is instantaneous, and yet this is contrary to the truth and in addition is a pernicious belief, it is important that it be considered in due order:


a. Belief in instantaneous salvation by direct mercy has been assumed from man’s natural state.


b. This belief comes from ignorance of the spiritual state, which is completely different from the natural state.


c. The doctrines of all churches in Christendom, viewed interiorly, are opposed to instantaneous salvation by direct mercy, but external men of the church nevertheless maintain the belief.


[2] (a) Belief in instantaneous salvation by direct mercy has been assumed from man’s natural state. From his state the natural man does not know otherwise than that heavenly joy is like worldly joy and that it flows in and is received in the same way; that, for example, it is like a poor man’s becoming rich and from a sad state of poverty, coming into a happy one of plenty, or like a lowly person’s being raised to honors and passing thus from contempt to renown; or like one’s going from a house of mourning to happy nuptials. As these states can be changed in a day and as there is a like idea of man’s state after death, it is plain whence it comes that instantaneous salvation by direct mercy is believed in.


[3] In the world, moreover, many can join in one group or in one civic community and enjoy the same things, yet all differ in mind; this is true of the natural state. The reason is that the external of one person can be accommodated to that of another, no matter how unlike their internals are. From this natural situation it is also concluded that salvation is merely admission among angels in heaven, and that admission is by direct mercy. It is also believed, therefore, that heaven can be given to the evil as well as to the good, and that their association then is similar to that in the world, with the difference that it is filled with joy.


[4] Second: This belief comes from ignorance of the spiritual state, which is altogether different from the natural state. The spiritual state, which is man’s state after death, has been treated of in many places above. It has been shown that everyone is his own love, that no one can live with others than those who are in a like love, and that if he comes among others he cannot breathe his own life. For this reason everyone comes after death into a society of his own people, that is, who are in a like love, and recognizes them as relatives and friends, and what is remarkable, on meeting and seeing them it is as if he had known them from infancy. Spiritual relationship and friendship bring this about. What is more, in a society no one can dwell in any other house than his own. Everyone in a society has his own home, which he finds prepared for him as soon as he enters the society. He may be in close company with others outside his home, but he cannot dwell elsewhere. Again, in somebody else’s apartment one can sit only in his own place; seated elsewhere he becomes frustrated and mute. And it is remarkable that on entering he knows his own place. This is as true in temples he enters and in any companies in which people gather.


[5] It is plain from this that the spiritual state is altogether different from the natural state, and is such that no one can be anywhere but where his ruling love is to be found. For there the enjoyment of one’s life is, and everyone desires to be in the enjoyment of his life. A man’s spirit cannot be anywhere else because that enjoyment constitutes his life, his very breathing, in fact, and his heartbeat. It is different in the natural world; there man’s external is taught from infancy to simulate in look, speech, and bearing other enjoyments than those of his internal man. Accordingly, no conclusion can be formed about man’s state after death from his state in the natural world. For after death everyone’s state is spiritual and is such that he cannot be anywhere except in the enjoyment of his love, an enjoyment that he has acquired in the natural world by his life.


[6] Hence it is quite plain that no one who is in the enjoyment of hell can be admitted into the enjoyment of heaven, commonly called heavenly happiness, or what is the same, no one who is in the enjoyment of evil can be admitted into the enjoyment of good. This can be concluded still more plainly from the fact that after death no one is denied going up to heaven; he is shown the way, has the opportunity given him, and is admitted, but as soon as he enters heaven and inhales its enjoyment, he begins to feel constricted in his chest and racked at heart, and falls into a swoon, in which he writhes as a snake does brought near a fire. Then with his face turned away from heaven and towards hell, he flees headlong and does not stop until he is in a society of his own love. Hence it may be plain that no one reaches heaven by direct mercy. Consequently, just to be admitted is not enough, as many in the world suppose. Nor is there any instantaneous salvation, for this presupposes unmediated mercy.


[7] When some who had believed in the world in instantaneous salvation by direct mercy became spirits, they wanted their infernal enjoyment or enjoyment of evil changed by both divine omnipotence and divine mercy into heavenly enjoyment or enjoyment in the good. As they ardently desired this, permission was given for it to be done by angels, who proceeded to remove their infernal enjoyment. But as this was the enjoyment of their life’s love and consequently their life, they thereupon lay as if dead, devoid of all feeling and movement; nor could any life be breathed into them except their own, because all things of mind and body which had been turned backward could not be reversed. They were therefore revived by letting in the enjoyment of their life’s love. They said afterwards that in that state they had experienced something dreadful and horrible, which they did not care to divulge. There is a saying in heaven, therefore, that it is easier to change an owl into a turtledove or a serpent into a lamb than an infernal spirit into an angel of heaven.


[8] (c) The doctrines of all churches in Christendom, viewed interiorly, are opposed to instantaneous salvation by direct mercy, but still some external men of the church maintain the idea. Viewed interiorly, the doctrines of all the churches teach life. Is there a church whose doctrine does not teach that man ought to examine himself, see and acknowledge his sins, confess them, repent, and then live a new life? Who is admitted to Holy Communion without this admonition and precept? Inquire and you will be assured of it. Is there a church whose doctrine is not based on the precepts of the Decalogue? The precepts of the Decalogue are precepts of life. What man of the church, in whom there is anything of the church, does not, on hearing it, acknowledge that he who lives rightly is saved and he who lives wickedly is condemned? In the Athanasian Creed, which is also the doctrine received in the whole Christian world, it is therefore said:


The Lord will come to judge the quick and the dead; and then those who have done good will enter into eternal life, and those who have done evil into everlasting fire.


[9] It is clear, then, that the doctrines of all churches, when viewed interiorly, teach life, and teaching life they teach that salvation is according to the life. Man’s life is not breathed into him in a moment but is formed gradually, and it is reformed as the man shuns evils as sins, consequently as he learns what sin is, recognizes and acknowledges it, does not will it but desists from it, and also learns the helps that come with a knowledge of God. By all these means man’s life is formed and reformed, and they cannot be given on the instant.


For hereditary evil, in itself infernal, has to be removed, and good, in itself heavenly, implanted in its place. Because of his hereditary evil man may be compared to an owl as to the understanding and to a serpent as to the will, but when he has been reformed, he may be compared to a dove as to the understanding and to a sheep as to the will. Instantaneous reformation and hence salvation would be like changing an owl at once into a dove or a serpent at once into a sheep. Who that knows anything about man’s life does not see the impossibility of this? Salvation is impossible unless the owl and serpent nature is removed and the nature of the dove and sheep implanted instead.


[10] Moreover, it is common knowledge that every intelligent person can become more intelligent than he is, and every wise man wiser than he is, and that intelligence and wisdom in man may increase and do so in some men from infancy to the close of life, and that man is thus continually perfected. Why should not spiritual intelligence and wisdom increase as well? These rise by two degrees above natural intelligence and wisdom, and as they ascend become angelic intelligence and wisdom, which are ineffable. These in turn increase to eternity with the angels. Who cannot understand, if he will, that what is being perfected to eternity cannot possibly be made perfect in an instant?


339. Thence it is evident now that all who give thought to salvation for their life’s sake do not think of an instantaneous salvation by immediate mercy. Their thought is about the means to salvation, on and by which the Lord acts in accord with the laws of his divine providence, and thus by which man is led by the Lord out of pure mercy. Those, however, who do not think of salvation for their life’s sake presume an instantaneousness in salvation and an immediacy in mercy, as do those who, separating faith from charity (charity is life), presume that faith can be instantaneous, at the final hour of death, if not earlier.


Those do this, too, who believe remission of sins without any repentance to be absolution from sins and thus salvation, when attending the Holy Supper. So again those do who trust to indulgences of monks, their prayers for the dead, and the dispensations they grant by the authority which they claim over the souls of men.


340. (4) Instantaneous salvation by unmediated mercy is the flying fiery serpent in the church. By a flying fiery serpent evil aglow with infernal fire is meant, as it is by the flying fiery serpent in Isaiah:


Rejoice not, all Philistia, that the rod which smote you is broken, for out of the serpent’s root shall come forth a basilisk, whose fruit is a flying fiery serpent (Isa. 14:29).


Evil of the kind is flying about in the church when belief is put in instantaneous salvation by immediate mercy, for this:


a. abolishes religion;


b. induces security;


c. charges condemnation to the Lord.


[2] (a) It abolishes religion. Two things are the essentials and at the same time the universals of religion, namely, acknowledgment of God, and repentance. Neither has meaning for those who believe that they are saved out of mercy alone no matter how they live. What need then to do more than cry, “Have mercy on me, O God”? In all else pertaining to religion they are in darkness, even loving the darkness. In regard to the first essential of the church, which is an acknowledgment of God, they only think, “What is God? Who has seen him?” If told that God is, and is one, they say that he is one; if told there are three, they also say there are three, but the three must be called one. Such is their acknowledgment of God.


[3] Touching the church’s second essential, namely, repentance, they give this no thought, nor thought to any sin, and finally do not know that there is such a thing as sin. Then they hear and drink in with pleasure that the law does not condemn them because a Christian is not under its yoke. If only you say, “Have mercy on me, O God, for the sake of the Son,” you will be saved. This is repentance in their life. If, however, you take away repentance, or what is the same thing, separate life from religion, what is left except the words, “Have mercy on me”? They are therefore sure to maintain that salvation is instantaneous, accomplished by these words, even if uttered at the hour of death, if not before. What does the Word become to them then but an obscure and cryptic utterance issuing from a tripod in a cave, or like an incomprehensible response from the oracle of an idol? In a word, if you remove repentance, that is, sever life from religion, what is human nature then but evil aglow with infernal fire or a flying fiery serpent in the church? For without repentance man is in evil, and evil is hell.


[4] (b) By the belief in instantaneous salvation out of pure mercy alone security of life is induced. Security of life arises either from the belief of the impious man that there is no life after death, or from the belief of one who separates life from salvation. Although the latter may believe in eternal life, he still thinks, “whether I live rightly or wickedly, I can be saved, for salvation is by outright mercy, and God’s mercy is universal, for he does not desire the death of anyone.” If it occurs to him that mercy should be implored in the words of the traditional faith, he can think that this can be done, if not earlier, just before death.


Everyone who feels this security, makes light of adultery, fraud, injustice, acts of violence, blasphemy and revenge, and gives a free rein to body and spirit for committing all these evils; nor does he know what spiritual evil, or the lust of evil, is. Should he hear something about it from the Word, it is like something falling on ebony and rebounding, or falling into a ditch and being swallowed up.


[5] (c) By this belief condemnation is charged to the Lord. If the Lord can save anybody out of pure mercy, who is not going to conclude that if man is not saved, it is not he but the Lord who is at fault? If it is asserted that faith is the medium of salvation, what man cannot have this faith? For it is only a thought, and this can be imparted, along with confidence, in any state of the spirit withdrawn from the mundane. Man may also declare “I cannot acquire this faith of myself.” Hence if it is not vouchsafed him and he is condemned, what else can he think except that the Lord is at fault who could have given him the faith but would not? Would this not amount to calling the Lord unmerciful? Moreover, in the fervor of his belief he may ask, “How can God see so many condemned in hell when he can save them all in an instant from pure mercy?” And more such things, which can only be called an atrocious indictment of the Divine. From the above it may be evident that belief in instantaneous salvation out of sheer mercy is the flying fiery serpent in the church.


[6] Excuse the addition of what follows to fill the remainder of the sheet.


Certain spirits were permitted to ascend from hell who said to me, “You have written much from the Lord; write something from us, too.” I asked, “What shall I write?” They said, “Write that every spirit, good or evil, has his own enjoyment; a good spirit is in the enjoyment of his good, and an evil spirit in the enjoyment of his evil.” I then asked, “What is your enjoyment?” They answered that it was the enjoyment of committing adultery, stealing, defrauding, and lying. Again I inquired, “What is the nature of those enjoyments?” They replied, “By others they are perceived as offensive odors from excrement and as the putrid smell from dead bodies and as the reeking stench from stagnant urine.” I then said, “Do you find them enjoyable?” “Most enjoyable,” they said. I remarked, “Then you are like unclean beasts which live in such filth.” They replied to this, “If we are, we are; but such things are delightful to our nostrils.”


[7] I asked, “What more shall I write from you?” They said, “Write this. Everyone is allowed to be in his own enjoyment, even the most unclean, as it is called, provided he does not infest good spirits and angels, but as we could not but infest them, we were driven off and cast into hell, where we suffer fearful things.” I asked, “Why did you infest the good?” They replied that they could not help it; a fury seems to seize them when they see an angel and feel the divine sphere around him. Then I said, “So you are also like savage beasts!” On hearing this, a fury came over them which appeared like the fire of hate, and lest they inflict some injury, they were drawn back into hell. On enjoyments sensed as odors or as stenches in the spiritual world, see above (n. 303-305, 324).










1. There is no section 84 in the original.


2. The Greek is simply “on a woman” and does not have the word here rendered “of another.” Though Swedenborg quotes the verse several times in his works he seems not to have checked as he usually did beyond the rendering of the Schmidius Latin Bible which he used.


3. See Note 2, above.


4. There is no section 188 in the original.


5. It is the doctrine of all churches in Christendom that God the Father, God the Son, and God the Holy Spirit is infinite, eternal, uncreated, and omnipotent, as may be seen in the Athanasian Creed.


6. Plural in the Hebrew, especially of blood that has been shed. “Both” is emphatic here, and for the significance of the plural see Arcana Coelestia, n. 374e and Apocalypse Explained, n. 329[27].


7. Swedenborg follows the numbering of the commandments customary with Lutherans and Roman Catholics.


8. So numbered in the Latin original.


9. So numbered in the Latin original.


10. Cf. Ezek. 13:10, 11, Arcana Coelestia n. 739[2], and Apocalypse Explained n. 237[5] and 644[25].


11. See n. 330.







Index of Scripture Passages



Bold figures designate verses fully quoted.

Italic figures designate verses given in substance.

Figures in parenthesis indicate verses merely referred to. Figures in brackets indicate subdivisions of paragraphs.




1 (26) 328[5]

(26, 27) 123[1]

(Chap. cited) 241[1]

3 1 310[5]

5 313[2]

15 211[1]



20 7 230[2]

32 2, 5, 35 132

4-6 132

(Chap. cited) 243



3 (17) 231[9]

7 (23-25) 231[9]



5 (Chap. cited) 326[11]

6 (Chap. cited) 326[11]



24 244



11 (3) 245



1 6, 16-18, 20 278b

6 9, 10 260[2]

14 4, 22 231[5]

4, 22 257[2]

12 257[3]

12-14 257[2]

29 340[1]

(Chap. cited) 231[5]

40 (17, 23) 309[3]



7 2-4, 9-11 128[5]



1 (Chap. cited) 134a[1]

8 3 seq. 134a[1]

10 (Chap. cited) 134a[1]

11 1, 24 134a[1]

40 (2, 26) 134a[1]

40-48 (Chaps.cited) 134a[1]

43 (5) 134a[1]



2 32, 33 328[3]

7 1 seq. 134a[2]

8 1 seq. 134a[2]

9 (21) 134a[2]

(24) 134a[3]

(24, 27) 328[4]

10 (1, 7, 8) 134a[2]



7 (4) 284



1 (8 seq.) 134a[2]

(18) 134a[2]

2 (1, 3 seq.) 134a[2]

4 (1, seq.) 134a[2]

5 (1, 6) 134a[2]

7 (1, seq.) 134a[2]



5 8 33[5]

28 111[2], 152

36 159

37 219[3]

45 173

45 292[3], 330[2]

6 9 230[2]

19-21 217[6]

23 264[3]

24 18, 233[2]

7 7, 9, 11 330[2]

13, 14 250[5]

19, 20 128[1]

22, 23 128[1]

(22) 230[2]

24, 26 128[1]

8 11, 12 330[7]

16 310[5]

22 231[9]

(22) 230[2]

41, 42 230[3]

12 25, 30 233[2]

(31, 32) 98[3]

32 231[6]

43-45 231[8]

(43-45) 133

13 7, 22 278[3]

12 227[4]

12 17

(13) 231[9]

15 260[2]

33 25

15 11, 17, 18 80

27 128[2]

18 (5, 20) 230[2]

(8, 9) 324[5]

20 256[2]

21, 22 280

19 (29) 230[2], 324[5]

20 26, 27 215[11]

21 (9) 230[2]

43 128[2]

22 (11-13) 223

23 9 330[1]

25, 26 150[1]

24 (9, 10) 230[2]

(Chap. cited) 328[4]

25 (14-31) 210[2]

28, 29 17

29 227[4]

(32, 33, 41-46) 101[1]

41 101[1]

(46) 324[5]

28 (18) 245, 330[6]

(19) 262[6]



1 4, 14, 15 114[2]

4 7, 19 278[3]

12 260[2]

25 17, 227[4]

6 12 114[2]

10 (17) 324[5]

13 13 231[9]

(Chap. cited) 328[4]



3 3 114[2], 280

8, 9 114[2]

6 37, 38 334

(45) 80

46-49 91[3]

46-49 128[1]

8 7, 14 278[3]

10 260[2]

18 17, 227[4]

21 128[2]

10 (25) 324[5]

12 (1) 284

6, 7, 25-28 332[4]

(14-48) 179[1]

(15-21) 220[11]

47 231[2]

13 3, 5 114[2]

21 25

25, 27 128[2]

16 8, 9 250[5]

26 100[2]

27-31 134b

18 (30) 324[5]

19 (13-28) 210[2]

24, 26 17

26 227[4]

20 36, 38 324[5]

21 (Chap. cited) 328[4]

24 47 114[2]

47 280



1 1, 4 156

1, 14 172[3]

(12) 230[2]

(13) 298[3]

2 (19, 21) 245

(23) 230[2]

3 3 82

(15, 16, 36) 324[5]

(17, 18) 230[2]

27 159

27 88, 173

5 14 231[8]

(24, 25, 39) 324[5]

26 159

29 128[2]

(40) 324[5]

6 (27, 40, 68) 324[5]

63 172[2]

8 (31-36) 145[4]

9 31 128[5]

41 231[2]

41 254[5]

10 1 230[4]

2, 3, 9 230[4]

11 25 159

12 (13, 28) 230[2]

40 231[9], 260[2]

(50) 324[5]

13 8-10 151[2]

17 128[3]

14 6 159

(14-16) 230[2]

(15), 21, 23 128[3]

19 324[5]

20 92

20 263[2]

20-24 172[2]

21, 23 33[5]

21-24 326[6]

15 (1-7) 296[2]

4, 5 30, 92[1]

4-6 263[2]

5 159

5 88[2], 173

7 172[2]

14, 16 128[3]

16 (23, 24, 26, 27) 230[2]

17 (6) 230[2]

(22, 23) 263[2]

20 (31) 230[2], 324[5]



3 28, 31 115



1 (10) 134a[3]

12-16 134a[3]

2 1, 2, 4, 5 128[4]

8, 9 128[4]

12, 13, 16 128[4]

18, 19 128[4]

3 1-3 128[4]

7, 8 128[4]

14, 15, 19 128[4]

15, 16 18, 231[8]

20 33[2], 119, 233[3]

4 (2) 134a[3]

(Chap. cited) 134a[3]

5 (1) 134a[3]

(Chap. cited) 134a[3]

6 (1) 134a[3]

(Chap. cited) 134a[3]

8 (Chap. cited) 134a[3]

9 (Chap. cited) 134a[3]

12 3 310[5]

(9) 310[5]

(Chap. cited) 134a[3]

13 (Chap. cited) 134a[3]

14 13 128[4]

17 (Chap. cited) 134a[3]

18 (Chap. cited) 134a[3]

19 (11, 16-18) 264[4]

(Chap. cited) 134a[3]

20 12 (13) 128[4]

21 (1, 2) 134a[3]

(1) 5 264[4]

(18-21) 264[4]

(Chap. cited) 134a[3], 263[2]

22 (1, 2) 264[4]

12 128[4]

(Chap.cited) 134a[3],263[2]










References are to main paragraph numbers. The figure in brackets indicates the subdivision in the paragraph; when there is no such figure, the first subdivision is meant.



Accidental and Fortuitous. Are idle words (n. 70); fortune and providence (n. 212, 212[2], 251[6]); temple to Fortune (n. 212[2]).


Acknowledgement. The will is involved (n. 231[2], 209); two kinds (n. 91[2]); source of each, and what each effects (n. 91[2]); acknowledgment of God according to goodness of life (n. 326[6], cf. 321[6, 7]); effects conjunction with God (n. 326), as does acknowledgment that all good and truth are from Him (n. 92[3]); starts regeneration (n. 91); character of those who acknowledge nature only, of those who acknowledge one’s own prudence only, of those who acknowledge providence (n. 205, 208).


Adaptation by Providence. In foresight 202[3]; in action on man’s inner life (n. 124[2], cf. 256) in history.


Affection and Thought. Never one apart from the other (n. 28[4], 74[2], 193, 194[2], 196); affection takes form in thought (n. 199); element in which each exists (n. 199); are not in space and time (n. 50[2]); are activities of substances and forms (n. 279[6], 319, cf. 195[3]); the enjoyments and the pleasure attaching respectively to them (n. 195). See Think and Will.


Affection. (On the force of the word and especially of the phrase “affection of” viz. that one is affected by good and by truth, by evil and by falsity (n. 11[2], 36, 76); influx of these is implied (n. 157[6], 63, cf. 40, 25, 298[5]). “Affection for” is felt in the conscious life (n. 28[3]). An affection a subordinate love of the life’s love (n. 195) or a derivative of it (n. 28[3], 106[2]); hence of natural, spiritual, or celestial love (n. 75); affections known and unknown to oneself (n. 199[2]); those of good and truth human in form (n. 66).


Thought. Form affection takes (n. 198, 28[4]); a mental partner on each of three levels of life (n. 74[2]); an external and an internal of thought (n. 103, 104[2], 106-110, 120, 139, 145); same as external and internal man (n. 150) and as external will and understanding (n. 103); meaning internal closed (n. 139[6]); external of same character as internal (n. 108[2]); seeming divergence (n. 109); one’s internal of thought known to him only hereafter (n. 233); so of interiors of Word implanted in one during life (n. 172[5]); within present consciousness an interior and exterior thought enabling to self-examination (n. 104[2], 278, cf. 16[2], 75[2], 130[2]); thought is by influx (n. 288, 289[1, 2]), with the evil too (n. 308; see 292) on this.


Africans. Their belief in immortality (n. 274).


Ages, or Religious Eras. See Church and Religion.


Allowable. What one deems allowable a deed of the spirit and part of oneself (n. 81, 111[2], and see 73[4], 101[2], 108, 113, 152, 278).


Anatomy. Drawn upon for the secrecy of the soul’s activity in the body to illustrate the unperceived activities of providence in man’s inner life (n. 174, 180[1-7], 181[1, 2], 199[3], 279[7-9], 296[14, 15], 319, 336); to illustrate manner of man’s entrance into heaven (n. 164[6]).


Angelic Wisdom. Words part of book’s title, why (n. 4e, 4[4, 5], 66, 70); ineffable (n. 34[3]); its central truth (n. 172[6]); drawn upon in arcana which are numberless (n. 254), little known (n. 254), but can be known (n. 223), by whom (n. 164), momentarily even by devils and satans (n. 99, 223); presentations of arcana (n. 4[4], 28[3], 44, 66, 70, 124, 158, 164, 233, 254[3], 293), some in inner meaning of Word (n. 241[3]).


Angels. All once men or women in the world (n. 27); why not born angels (n. 220[2, 3]); are forms of affection and thought (n. 61, 50, 300, 301); recipients of love and wisdom (n. 28); the highest feel the influx of these (n. 158); the Lord flows into their affections (n. 28[3]), which are the forehead on which He looks (n. 29[2]); why the Lord appears as a sun above them 162; they face the Lord, by His inspiration (n. 29[2]); He is not among them, but in love and wisdom in them (n. 31); angelic ministry (n. 328[9]); angel on mission filled with the divine (n. 96[6]). See Heaven.


Appearance. The appearance, which is fact (n. 92[3], 116), that man wills and thinks, speaks and acts of himself (n. 74-95); origin (n. 74-77); impossible for him to do so (n. 308); the church teaches the reality (n. 191[1, 2], 308); the reality (n. 78[3], 88[2], 287, 308[1, 2]); avowed by angels (n. 288); admitted by Leibniz (n. 289[2]); the appearance willed by the Lord (n. 77[3], 79[4], 96[5]); providential (n. 92[3], 116, 308); necessary (n. 116, 174[2], 176, 210, 324[12], 330[3]); continues even with angels (n. 28[2-4]) and is stronger with the higher angels (n. 158); is the reciprocal for union with the Lord (n. 92[3], 219[5]); how much is included in the appearance (n. 76[2], 174[2]). The meaning with which the word is mainly used (n. 174e, cf. 219[5]).


Appearances: in the spiritual world, phenomena in which realities manifest themselves, the Lord in the sun of that world (n. 1); truth as light (n. 1), dissimilarity as distance, and development as time (n. 50, 29, 33[4]).


Appear. Evils must appear to be fought (n. 278); person in deep meditation may appear in other world (n. 296[6]).


Appropriation. Meaning (n. 78[3], 186e); i.e. of good and evil (n. 78-81, 320, 321[8]); appropriated: whatever is willed (n. 78-81, 227, 138); what one deems allowable 81; what is freely done (n. 78); appropriation man’s action, not that of providence (n. 321[8]); aside from it no reformation or regeneration (n. 86); what is appropriated remains (n. 78, 227); why (n. 79); no appropriation, only adjunction, of what is divine (n. 285[2]).


Arcana. See Angelic Wisdom.


Arians. Origin of Arianism (n. 262[2]); averted (n. 257[4]); prevalence (n. 262[2]); other-world lot of Arians and Socinians (n. 231[6]).


“As of Oneself,” “of Oneself.” Latter means of one’s own volition and thinking and doing; former means that one also recognizes the influx of life from beyond one (n. 90, 181[2], 129, 92[3], 102, 118, 210, 278[6], 321. Cf. John 14:10, 8:28, also 3:17, 15:5).


Ascription. The general ascription made by the good and the evil respectively (n. 19[2]; cf. 309[2] and purpose of book 70).


Athanasian Creed. Cited favorably (n. 46, 127, 202[2], 258[4], 262[3], 338[8]); critical mention (n. 262).


Atheists. (n. 98[4], 99, 154[2], 197).


Awe. The fear of one who believes in providence, of intruding his will (n. 179, 187).


Baptism. Relation to regeneration and salvation (n. 330[5]).


Beasts. Distinctions between man and beast (n. 16[2], 74, 96[4], 324); natural knowledge and affection of animals (n. 74[2, 3], 96[4], 161); their natural love (n. 275); a bird’s knowledge (n. 317); man dropping to animal level (n. 276, 321[1, 2]); worse than animal (n. 75[3]).


Blessings. Heaven’s are indescribable, infinite in variety, ascend in like degree with wisdom (n. 39).


Blessings and Curses. See distinction and wealth, in connection with which they are discussed.


Body. Composition of human body (n. 220[3]); infinitude of things in it (n. 199[3]); its externals and internals (n. 180[2]); instrument of the spirit (n. 124[2]); its death part of providential order (n. 220[2]); man’s outer clothing thrown off (n. 124); purer elements of body retained, containers of man as a spirit (n. 220[2, 3]); spiritual body in spiritual world (n. 167[3]).


Book of Life, Man’s. (n. 227).


Calvin. (n. 50[4]).


Catholicism [Roman]. See Christianity, historical critique. Cause. See end, cause, and effect.


Center and Periphery. Center meaning squarely before consciousness (n. 279[2], 283, 291); the disposition of good and evil with the good and the evil (n. 68, 86, 283, 284); reason evils do not condemn regenerating, nor goods save unregenerate (n. 86); whatever at center diffuses itself to sides (n. 68, 86); interaction (n. 68, 86); on repentance evils only removed to sides (n. 79[1, 2], 279[2]), meaning of remain (n. 79); seeking to return or not (n. 283); man can return to them (n. 279[2]).


Charity and Faith. Make one (n. 82, 142[2], 242[2], 196); regenerating man acts from charity and brings faith and charity together (n. 83[6]); come as evils are shunned (n. 278[2], 84[4, 5]); life of charity one of three essentials of church, one’s faith according to it (n. 259[3]); charity and faith two essentials of the church (n. 242).


Charity. Love of the neighbor (n. 79[4], 275); goods of charity (n. 230[4]), what so called (n. 145[2], mean uses 220[5, 7, 11]); works of charity (n. 77[2]).


Faith. Faith a growth (n. 339); separate from charity is not faith (n. 264[3], 265); breaks marriage of good and truth (n. 22); is obstacle to Christian life (n. 265); has no knowledge of evils (n. 101, 107)); pays no heed to sin (n. 117); rejects and kills charity (n. 101, 242); not saving, why (n. 136[8]); induced by miracle is persuasion, not faith 131; based on Romans (n. 3:28); Luther on subject (n. 258[6]); those who separate faith from charity (n. 258, 101); oblivious to what Word says of charity (n. 115, 153e, 258[2], 318[6]); told better (n. 258[6]); lot hereafter (n. 242[2]); other-world revelation of what faith one has (n. 170, 101[3]).


Choice and Decision. Rarely put in these words (n. 321[5], 129[2], 71), freedom of choice is an axiom throughout the book, involved, e.g., in the laws of providence, in the noncoercion of providence, in the provision of means to salvation.


Christ. His names spoken only in His spirit (n. 53[2], 262[8]). See entry God.


Christianity. Historical critique: the zeal at the outset (n. 257[3]); drift into Babylonianism (n. 262[8]); arrogation of divine power (n. 257[1-3]); procedure (n. 262[8]); why lust to rule permitted (n. 257[3, 4]); treatment of Word (n. 257[5], 264[2]); of the Holy Supper (n. 257[6]); invocation of the dead (n. 257[2, 5]); enforced worship (n. 136[4]); the Catholic faithful (n. 257[4]). With Protestantism, into Philistinism (n. 264[2]); meaning (n. 264[3]); salvation placed in certain formulae (n. 258); resulting ignorance that evils must be shunned (n. 265[1, 2]); told better (n. 258[3], 127, 114). In general: divisions, why (n. 256[3]), further reason (n. 259[2]); had essentials been held to, differences but not divisions (n. 259[3]); tripersonalism (n. 262[1-6]); why permitted (n. 262[7]); root in not seeing Lord’s divine and human one (n.


262[7]); His human equated with that of creature man (n. 262[8]); difficult for Christian to conceive of a Divine Human (n. 262[5]); how separate Lord’s divine and human are regarded (n. 255[4]); heresies in Christendom (n. 330[5], 330[8], 259); errors of the age: evils cast out when pardoned (n. 279[1, 2], 280); idea instant salvation possible (n. 279[4]); why impossible (n. 279[6]).


Church. As kingdom of heaven on earth: Lord’s heaven in natural world (n. 30, 27[3]); called “human heaven,” as distinguished from “angelic heaven” (n. 30); spread and scattered worldwide (n. 325); wherever mankind (n. 328); two universals in this communion—acknowledgment of God and goodness of life (n. 325[2], 328[8], 326[9], 340[2, 3]); three essentials (n. 259[3])—acknowledgment of the divine of the Lord, acknowledgment of the sacredness of the Word, and a life of charity. The will involved in acknowledgment [see acknowledgment] and essentials pertain to the life (n. 259[2]). The church in or as a religious era: successive churches from most ancient times (n. 328); first four meant by golden, silver, and iron ages, and by image seen by Nebuchadnezzar (n. 328[3]); the most ancient church, described in spiritual sense of Word under Adam and Eve (n. 328[2], 313, noblest 313, innocent 275); the ancient church, described in story of Noah (n. 328[2]), its locale in Asia and Egypt (n. 328[2]); the Hebrew church, instituting sacrificial rites (n. 328[2]); the Israelitish and Jewish church, established for the sake of the Scriptures (n. 328[2]), its statutes (n. 245), nature of its people (n. 132[2]), lapse from its mission (n. 246, decline 262[8], 264[2]). The Christian church (n. 328[3]). Each church declined in time (n. 328[3], 328[4]); why (n. 328[5-7]). A new church succeeds a devastated one (n. 328[10]); succeeds the Christian (n. 328[10]); one in which faith separate from charity will be rejected, the Word be held sacred, and the Lord worshipped (n. 264[5], the three essentials of the church 259[3]).


Circling of Life in the Mind. (n. 29[3]).


Civil, Moral and Spiritual. Civil man, meaning (n. 322); moral man, meaning (n. 322); can go on to be a spiritual man, (n. 322[1-3], how 322[2]); civil and moral life the receptacle of spiritual life (n. 322[2]); the civil and moral natural man and the civil and moral spiritual man, difference in citizenship, in the good they do (n. 322[2], latter called alive, former dead 322[3]). Natural moralists (n. 117[2]).


Colors. For variety in, a constant light 190[2]; colors same summer and winter (n. 298).


Combat. How spiritual struggle arises (n. 19[2]); to what end (n. 25); of internal man with external man (n. 146); when occurs (n. 145); against evils and falsities (n. 25, against what is in one 147; called for 146); Lord’s activity in (n. 147); part of reformation (n. 284); severe combat temptation (n. 145[2], 284); less severe a fermentation (n. 284); objects of genuine temptations (n. 141); hardest struggle of all for man (n. 146); the Cross Lord’s final combat (n. 247).


Comparisons. So some of his illustrations are designated by Swedenborg, or called a parallel, especially if correspondences are involved (n. 332). So (n. 107, 165, 284) and other places.


Common simile may also be called “comparison” cf. (n. 202[3] and 333[3]).


Compulsion. Not Lord’s way (n. 43[2], nor heaven’s 129); belief and love cannot be compelled (n. 129, 136[2]); one’s internal can compel the external, not vice versa (n. 136[2, 3]); coerced and free internal (n. 136[9]); one’s animal internal that is coerced (n. 136[2]); compulsion of human internal by fear or love (n. 136[9]); self-compulsion exercise of freedom and reason (n. 136[9], 145, 147e, 148).


Condemnation. Or damnation, meaning nonsalvation, as man’s initial state (n. 82[2]); to be considered in this connection (n. 324[9], 277[4]); believer in instantaneous salvation condemns Lord when not saved (n. 340[5]); any condemned by predestination a cruel heresy (n. 330[8]); condemnation only meaning death has to angels (n. 324[4]).


Confession of Sins. See Reformation and Regeneration.


Confirmation. Anything can be substantiated, falsity more readily than truth, why (n. 318[2]); ingenuity, not intelligence (n. 318[8]); truth as well as falsity though one does not know truth (n. 318[8]); falsity can seem truth (n. 286, 318[3]); confirmed falsity obscures truth, confirmed truth makes falsity apparent (n. 318[6]); an appearance confirmed as truth becomes a fallacy (n. 220[6, 7], 310); so confirmation of appearance of self-action (n. 154, 310, 321[1, 2]); confirmation on word of an authority (n. 168[5]); confirmation mental or volitional (n. 318[9]); effect of mental (n. 318[9]); of the two (n. 318[10]); violence that can be done to good, to truth, by confirmation of the opposite (n. 231[3]); what is confirmed by will and understanding remains one’s own (n. 317, to eternity 318[11], 319).


Conjunction. Of the Lord with spiritual and natural worlds (n. 326[4]); with the church (n. 28[4]); with man (n. 164); on this depends connection of all things (n. 3[3]); means to the conjunction (n. 92, 94, 164, 219[5, 6]); according to goodness of life (n. 326[6]); is reformation, regeneration, and salvation (n. 123); can be more and more close (n. 28, 32, 33; man then wiser (n. 34, happier 37, 41, more distinctly his own, but clearer he is Lord’s 42-44); reciprocal (n. 94); conjunction throughout person means eternal life (n. 96[7]); what is living in man is there by contiguity (n. 57 or adjunction 58e). Conjunction of one with another in the spiritual world (n. 326[3], 29). In the mind, particulars are united by the affections (n. 326[4]).


Conscience. Meant by inner bond (n. 81, 108); implied in what is deemed allowable, in responsible exercise of freedom and reason, in observing the precepts of the Decalogue, and as much an axiom in the book as is choice. Spurious or false conscience (n. 141).


Constant. The constant basis of the variable (n. 190); constants listed (n. 190[1, 2]); variety infinite (n. 56[2], 57, 190[3]); yet some argue from constants in favor of nature and one’s own prudence (n. 190[3]).


Correspondences. The relation between spiritual world and natural (n. 251[4]), between mind and body (n. 181, 279[7]); knowledge of correspondences chief knowledge in early times (n. 255[2]), cultivated especially in Egypt (n. 252[2]). The Word composed in correspondences (n. 220[6]). Correspondential meaning given of Scripture passages: Genesis 1-3, (n. 241[1-3], 313[1-3]; 1 Samuel 5, 6 326[11-13]). Correspondential meaning given of a word or more: Aaron (n. 132[2]); Abel (n. 242); Adam and Eve (n. 241, 313); Ammonites (n. 251[3]); Amorites (n. 251[3]); Assyria (n. 251[3]); Babel, Babylon (n. 231[5], 257[2]); blood (n. 231[3, 9]; Cain (n. 241, 242[3]); Canaan (n. 132[7], 260); captivity in Babylon (n. 246); Chaldea (n. 231[5], 251[3]); chariot (n. 326[12]); coats of skin (n. 313); concubines (n. 245); conflagration (n. 112[2]); crowns (n. 310[6]); cup of cold water (n. 230[3]); Dagon (n. 326[12]); outer darkness (n. 318[5], 231[4]); David (n. 245); devastation of Jewish church (n. 246); door (n. 230[4]); Dragon (n. 258); eagles (n. 20); Egyptians (n. 251[2, 3]); eye (n. 264[3], 29[2]); fat (n. 231[9]); ferment (n. 284); fig leaves (n. 313[3]); fire (n. 112[2]); flood (n. 284); foolish virgins (n. 328[9]); forehead (n. 29[2]); fountain (n. 255[2]); fruit (n. 332[3]); garden of Eden (n. 241, 313[2]); goats (n. 101); hair (n. 159e); hallowing name (n. 230); head (n. 310[6]); heart (n. 80); horns (n. 310[6]); image and likeness (n. 273[2], 328[5]); image of Nebuchadnezzar (n. 322); Jews (n. 260); king (n. 245); lamp (n. 328[9]); leaves (n. 332[3]); Lucifer (n. 231[6], 257[3]); lukewarm (n. 231[8]); lungs (n. 193[2]); Mammon (n. 250[5); Moabites (n. 251[3]); mouth (n. 80); name and reward of prophet, of righteous man (n. 230[3]); calling sheep by name (n. 230[4]); Noah (n. 328[2]); nose (n. 310); oil (n. 328[9]); Philistia (n. 264[3]); Philistines (n. 258, 326); rain (n. 173, 292[3]); Sabbath (n. 21); Sidon (n. 245); Solomon (n. 245); sound or tone C194[2], 279[8]); statutes Jewish church (n. 245); sun (n. 173, 292[3]); sword, devoured by (n. 278[6]); talent (n. 210[2]); temple, built (n. 245, destroyed 246); thief and robber (n. 230[4]); thistle (n. 313[3]); thorn (n. 313[3]); tree (n. 332[3]); war (n. 251[3]); washing (n. 151[2]); washing head, feet (n. 151[2])); white raiment (n. 279[3]); whoredom (n. 233[10]); wife (n. 245); will of the flesh (n. 298[3]); will of man (n. 298[3]); wings (n. 20).


Creation. Not from nothing (n. 46[3], 157[9]), from substance of infinite being (n. 1, 3[1, 2], 46[3], 157[1-9]); difference from proceeding (n. 219[2]); divine love created universe by divine wisdom (n. 2, 3); result, are imaged in every created thing (n. 5); being one, in each thing a marriage of good and truth (n. 9, 74[2]); man created to receive divine love and wisdom (n. 328[5]); for whose sake the Lord created the world (n. 27[2]); purpose a heaven from mankind (n. 27[1, 2], 45, 323); an infinite and eternal creation to come about in framework of world (n. 202, 203[2], 324[2]); auxiliary purposes (n. 332); laws of order fixed at creation (n. 332).


Cross. Passion of the cross the Lord’s last combat (n. 247); act of pure love and mercy (n. 337); reliance of faith alone on the cross (n. 258[2]).


Crucifixion. Despite all miracles (n. 132); why allowed and under providence (n. 247).


Curses. See Distinction and Wealth where discussed.


Darkness. To whom in other world heaven darkness, hell darkness (n. 167[3]); falsity darkness (n. 318[5]); certain profaners sent into outer darkness (n. 231 [4]); darkness when things of life are not the essentials (n. 259[2]).


Death. In order of providence (n. 220[2, 3]); what consists in (n. 220[3], 324[3]); what left behind (n. 220[2, 5]); life continues (n. 324[3]); so wise of old perceived (n. 324[3].


Decalogue. First of Word (n. 325[11]); ark containing the Decalogue holiest object with Jewish church (n. 326[13]); observance of its laws way of reformation and regeneration (n. 249[4]); similar laws in most nations (n. 322[2], in every religion (n. 254); supposed for children (n. 329[2], meant for all (n. 258[4], 265[3]); why two tables (n. 95, 326[7]); a covenant (n. 326[7]); points to reciprocal action Lord and man (n. 95, 96[2]); points out the evils to be shunned as sins (n. 265[3], gives divine laws 329[2]). Discussion of evils follows up the Decalogue: worship of other gods (n. 154[2], of idols 254[5], of self and nature 154[2]); blasphemy (n. 38 and profaning the sacred 230); hatred, cruelty, and vengeance (n. 38, 276[2]); adultery (n. 144[2]); theft, defrauding, craftiness (n. 276[2], 230[4], 309[2]); false witness, lying (n. 276[2]); avarice (n. 220[11].


Degrees. Two kinds (n. 32[2]); three discrete degrees or levels of life in the human being (n. 32[1, 2], natural, spiritual and celestial 32[2], 324); possible progress in them (n. 32[2, 3]); with increasingly close union with the Lord (n. 32[3]); developed or opened in the world, consciously entered on hereafter (n. 32[3]); hence as many degrees of wisdom (n. 34); growth in any only to peak (n. 34[2]); by ascent of love (n. 34, and measure of conjunction 34); how related (n. 34[2]); possibilities for the human being (n. 75, 324); of perfecting forever in given degree (n. 334); character natural degree, of spiritual degree (n. 324[10]); clinging to the natural degree (n. 324[10]). Further discrete degrees to be noted: Infinite and finite); spiritual world and natural); in spiritual world, three divisions of heaven and of hell); in the constitution of the human being, inmosts, intermediates, and outmosts); internal and external of thought); in the Word, spiritual sense and natural sense etc.


Devil. All hell meant (n. 204); all evil (n. 233[3], 215[13], 33[3]); self-love (n. 302); love of ruling from self-love (n. 215[8]); no devil sole lord of hell (n. 302); infernal crew, lusts of evil and falsity (n. 35); devils and satans (n. 33[3], 310[3], difference 33[3], 210[3], 310[3]); none created such (n. 27).


Distinction and Wealth. Man’s temporal goals (n. 215); distinction and wealth in most ancient times (n. 215[2, 4], later 215[3, 5]); sought for themselves or for the sake of their usefulness (n. 215[6-11]); the difference between the two desires (n. 215[10, 11], distinct as heaven and hell are 215[10, 11], yet difficult to recognize 215[12, 13]); what is eternal could be in former, i.e., spiritual distinction and wealth (n. 216, 220[8], then blessings, else curses 217[1-7], stumbling blocks to the wicked 250); Lord unites the eternal to the temporal, man separating them (n. 218); from God distinction and wealth are blessing, and spiritual and eternal (n. 216[2], from the devil are curse and temporal and fleeting 216[2]); Lord leads not away from seeking distinction and acquiring wealth, but from doing so merely for the sake of them (n. 183[4]).


Divine. See God.


Dominion, Love of. See Love.


Door. A door in man which the Lord urges be opened to Him (n. 119[1, 2]); evils obstruct and close it (n. 119, lusts do 33[2], and the lusts of evil which the Lord would remove have no outlet 119[1, 2]); self-love guards the door not to be cast out (n. 210[2]); man’s cooperation called for (n. 33[2], 116, 119); two reasons (n. 119[1, 2]); how and when he opens the door (n. 233[3], 210[2], 145[2]).


Education. To enable one to become rational, moral and spiritual (n. 317); of children in heaven (n. 136[6], 324[9]).


End, cause, and effect. Everywhere); make one (n. 108); as found in one’s inner life 108[1, 2]); one’s mind continually in the three to be living (n. 178[2]); an end imparts itself to the cause and through this to the effect (n. 108[2]); what is essential in an effect is from the end through the cause (n. 108[2]); hence cause and effect are termed mediate end and final end (n. 108[2]).


English. Many among the English do not feel coerced to religion); so there is what is internal in their worship (n. 136[4]).


Enjoyments. Constitute life of a person (n. 303, 195[1, 3], 338[5], meaning the active life cf. “love makes one’s life” 13, and 73[2], 85e); love the source of enjoyments (n. 73[2]); no affections and no lusts without their enjoyments (n. 303, 38); enjoyment, of good are goods of charity (n. 145[2]); of lusts are evil (n. 206[2], not felt as evils, why (n. 296[9], of attendant thoughts are falsities 206[2]); thoughts do not exist without enjoyments (n. 199); for distinction, enjoyments of perceptions and thoughts sometimes termed pleasures (n. 195[1, 2]); kinds, of will and understanding (n. 136[5]); internal and external, in will and understanding, in body and senses (n. 136[5]); spiritual in mind, natural in body (n.


195[3]); interaction (n. 136[5]); acting from the enjoyment of love free activity (n. 73[2] and action according to reason 85); when the enjoyment of self-love constitutes one’s life (n. 186); nature and force of the enjoyment of the love of dominion (n. 215[9]); enjoyment of evil grows (n. 296[3]); enjoyments withdrawing man from evil (n. 296[10]); enjoyments govern thoughts (n. 199, captivate thought and banish reflection 113, 199); were wisdom not endless, enjoyment of it would cease (n. 335[2]); heavenly and infernal enjoyments opposites (n. 38, 303); manifest to anyone hereafter (n. 38[2]); antipathy and separation of heaven and hell (n. 303); one’s enjoyments and one’s place in spiritual state (n. 338[5]); what enjoyed here enjoyed hereafter (n. 83[3], 338[7]); enjoyments of infernal spirits (n. 83[3], 340[6], turn to direful 83[3]); enjoyments make sphere of angel, devil, a society of heaven or hell, of heaven as a whole, and of hell (n. 303).


Enlightenment. Spoken of wisdom and the understanding (n. 165, 166); Lord teaches by (n. 165, 321[3]); through the Word (n. 171, 172[1, 5]); still immediately though through preaching and reading (n. (n. 172[6], cf. 135, 150[2], 329); the light that enlightens (n. 166, 168[2], 317); inner and outer enlightenment from the Lord 168[1-30]); inner and outer from oneself (n. 168[4, 5]); that from Lord and from oneself objectified in other world (n. 169); Swedenborg’s enlightenment (n. 135); enlightenment following the Last Judgment (n. 263[3].


Equilibrium. Human spirit poised between influences of heaven and those of hell (n. 23, 215[8]); kept so in this world (n. 23); united evil and falsity in hell serves by equilibrium for the union of good and truth in others (n. 22, 23).


Esse and Existere. Inseparable (n. 4, 11); the divine love the very being of all life (n. 330); love is esse, wisdom existere or coming to view 11); we have being because God is being (n. 46e); divine love gives what does not cease to be (n. 324 [2e]); angels understand infinite as esse, eternal as existere (n. 48).


Eternal. See Infinite and Eternal); God.


Evil and Falsity. Bound together (n. 233); are from hell (n. 321[4]); are nothing (n. 11[4], 19, meaning 19); when considered good and truth (n. 195[3], cf. 296[9]); favoring them cannot be doing good (n. 327); serving others for equilibrium (n. 21); better to be in them than in good and evil (n. 16).


Evil. Is enjoyment of the lust of acting contrary to divine order (n. 279[5]); origin in one, abuse of freedom and rationality (n. 15, and such wellsprings as love of self and of the world 83[2]); to man a single thing (n. 279[5], 296, actually a composite of lusts 279[5], 296); everyone in evil (n. 277, in evil and in good 227[2]); evils to be shunned as sins, see Decalogue); is the Christian religion (n. 278); not committing them many unaware are in evils (n. 117); ignorant of evils if no thought given to those in one (n. 101[2]); evils must appear in order to be removed (n. 278[1-5], 251); what like when repressed (n. 278[5]); pardoned on removal (n. 279, 280); removal gradual (n. 279); removal in the wicked and the good (n. 296[12]); hatred of good is in evil (n. 233[2]); so is acknowledgment of nature and of one’s own prudence (n. 205); contagion of evil 328[7]); carries its own penalty (n. 249[3]); all cleansing is from the Lord (n. 151[2]); withdrawing from evil by Lord (n. 296[7, 10]); recovery from evil (n. 281[4]).


Hereditary Evil. In everyone (n. 277, 277[2], 215[7]); how transmitted (n. 277, 328[7]); accumulates (n. 277, 328[7]); tends to lowest hell (n. 183); the desire in it to be great and rich (n. 183[2]).


Evildoers. Continually lead themselves into evils (n. 295); the wicked man a miniature hell (n. 296, cf. 251[2]); the evil in this world are governed as to their interiors in hell (n. 307[2]).


Falsity. Of evil and not of evil, meanings (n. 318[9]); latter can be united to good, former cannot (n. 318[9]); thoughts from enjoyments of evil are falsities (n. 206[2]); what is false to one (n. 195[3]); all falsities in darkness (n. 318[2]); close the understanding (n. 144); good man ridded hereafter of any unconfirmed falsities (n. 17).


External and Internal. External has its essence from the internal (n. 224); make one in every activity (n. 180); internal flows into external (n. 150[1, 2], understanding into the eye, e.g. 314); external can belie the internal (n. 224); one is affected by another’s external according to one’s own internal (n. 14[2]); what Lord does inwardly in man conditioned on what man does in externals (n. 180[5], 181[2], for there they are together 180[5]).


Face. Image of mind (n. 56[2], 277[2]); features distinguishing families (n. 277[2]); recurring in a grandchild or great grandchild (n. 277[2].


Faith. See charity and faith. Fall, the. (n. 275, 276).


Fallacies. An appearance confirmed as truth becomes a fallacy (n. 220[6, 7], 310, a falsity 87); arguments in favor of nature and one’s own prudence appearances and fallacies (n. 213); one becomes materialist and sensuous (n. 310).


Falsity. See evil and falsity.


Father. Lord is father of all human beings in respect of their life (n. 330); earthly parent is father in respect of the body only (n. 330); everyone’s soul from one’s father (n. 277[3]).


Fault. Not theirs from whom evil inflows, why (n. 294[2]); when fault is imputed and not imputed to a man (n. 294[4]); he is in fault if not saved (n. 327).


Fear. Fear cannot invade the internal of thought (n. 139[2]); kinds of fear invading the external of thought (n. 139[3], the effects 139[1-6]); fear of God, meaning (n. 140, 136[9]); who fears God (n. 253); the fear of failing to love (n. 136[9]).


Felicities of Heaven. Indescribable (n. 39); how given by the Lord (n. 27[2], cf. 96[5]); when bestowed (n. 39[2]); in infinite variety in every affection of good and truth (n. 39[2]); exalted as higher degrees of mind are opened (n. 37); fill an angel (n. 39[2]).


Fermentation. Less severe purification from evil and falsity (n. 25, 284); effected in many ways in heaven and on earth (n. 25).


Finite. See Infinite and Finite.


Fire. Lusts with their enjoyments like fire (n. 112[2]); so likened in the Word (n. 112[2]); so appear in the spiritual world, and are hellfire (n. 112[2]); can be the origin of some zeal for the salvation of souls (n. 139[8].


Foreknowledge. Man is not granted a knowledge of the future (n. 176, 178); it would do away with freedom to act according to reason (n. 176, 178, 179, and idle the mind 178); longing to know the future comes of an evil desire (n. 179); departs as one trusts in providence (n. 179); forming reasoned conclusions about the future different (n. 179).


Foresight. All the future present to the Lord, and the present eternal to Him (n. 333[3]); foresight over each life (n. 333, 67); of how man leads himself (n. 202[3]); unceasing (n. 202[3], 333[3]); state of each after death foreseen (n. 333, 203); apart from this foresight and providence, heaven and hell would be chaos (n. 333[2]).


Form. One form [organized substance] from which all others (n. 157[2]); Creator form itself (n. 4[3], so divine love and wisdom); form makes an entity a unit (n. 4); what can be predicated of an entity is from its form (n. 4[2]); more perfect as components distinguishable (n. 4[4, 5]); imperfection from indistinctness (n. 4[4]); form of heaven 61, 62); perfected to eternity, how (n. 62); thoughts and affections are activities of substances and forms [=subjects] (n. 279[6-9], 319[2]); forms in good and wicked (n. 319[3]); organization induced on one in world remains (n. 319[4], 326[5]).


Fortune. See Accidental and Fortuitous.


Freedom and Reason. Definition (n. 15, 73, 285); equated with liberty and rationality (n. 73, 97, 98); acting from them the same as acting from will and understanding (n. 97); underlie will and understanding (n. 96[2], 285); every man possesses the two faculties, the evil man as well as the good (n. 15, 96[5], 99, 285[1, 2]); are in man from the Lord (n. 73, 98, but only adjoined 285[2]); possible by equilibrium (n. 142); humanness resides in them (n. 96[4], 98); the Lord does (n. 96[5]); the two faculties cannot be taken away (n. 16[2], 99); are continually respected by providence and kept unimpaired (n. 96, cf. 97); are means to union with the Lord, reformation, regeneration, salvation, eternal life (n. 82, 92, 96, 123[4], 285[2]); abuse of the faculties (n. 15, 286); are their full selves, or liberty itself and rationality itself, with regeneration (n. 87, 98, 145[4]); how others act (n. 98); possible on maturity (n. 98[6]); can be attained by everyone who shuns evils as sins (n. 99); if not attained in life here cannot be after death (n. 99); to whom liberty itself and rationality cannot be given (n. 98[2-4, 6], can with difficulty be given 98[5]).


Freedom. Attaches to love (n. 73[2], to will 89); comes of the equilibrium in which man is (n. 23, cf. 129); kinds: two, heavenly and infernal (n. 43, meaning each 43); the difference (n. 149); infernal freedom (n. 97, 149); mistaking this for freedom (n. 43); trying to see heavenly freedom from infernal (n. 43); kinds: three, (n. 73[2], natural 73[3, 4], rational 73[5], spiritual 73[6, 7]); nature of each and how they are interrelated (n. 73[3-7]); spiritual freedom same as “liberty itself”—comes with regeneration cf. n. 73[6] and 99.


Reason or rationality. The faculty (n. 73, 98); from Lord (n. 73); can be raised by it to almost angelic wisdom (n. 222); rational man’s perceptions (n. 168[2]); two ways of perceiving by reason (n. 150[2]); men whose rational is spiritual, those whose rational is natural (n. 154[3]); rationality from spiritual light (n. 167, but in hell the light is turned into infernal light 167); misuse of rationality (n. 233[11]); spurious reason or false (n. 97); blind reasoners (n. 168[5]); sensuous men ingenious reasoners (n. 310[2]); man to reason on divine things (n. 219[3]); do so from Lord on reaching truth, from themselves before (n. 219[3]); highest angels never reason (n. 219[3].


French, the. Noble, refusing ecclesiastical domination and holding the Word to be holy (n. 257[4]).


Friendship. The spiritual relationship and friendship which make one at home in the other world (n. 338[4]).


General. What is general exists of particulars or details (n. 201[2]); in a form general and particular act as one 180 [4e]); on terminology see Universal.


Genesis. Literal understanding of Genesis 1 impossible (n. 241[2]).


Gentiles. Unsound belief Gentiles not saved (n. 330[7]); have the two essentials of religion (n. 328[8]); relate religion more to life (n. 322[5]); the spreading of religion (n. 254); light from Word extends beyond area where it is possessed (n. 256[2]); their further enlightenment hereafter (n. 328[8]); place in heaven (n. 254[3], 326[10]).


God. The infinite and eternal the Divine or God (n. 48, 51); the essence, substance and form from which all other, God (n. 157[1-9]); the one living God revealed in the Old Testament, the Lord-from-eternity or Jehovah (n. 1, 3, 157, God the Creator, the Lord-from-eternity 1, 5, 157[1, 5], Jehovah, the Father, Lord-from-eternity 157[9]); appellation “Lord” so used in the first place cf. 132[3], 330[6]); of Christ on earth, as sayings are quoted (n. 215[11], 219[3], 262[6] or His combat and cross spoken of 247, or as conceived from the Father 262[3, 4]); of Christ glorified in whom is the trinity (n. 262[6]); of the God of the universe, the Lord, in whom are Father, Son, and Holy Spirit (n. 262[5]); one in essence and person (n. 262[5]); essence divine love and wisdom (n. 46); pure love which came into the world, underwent temptations even to the cross and worked redemption (n. 337); God veritable man (n. 65, meaning 46[3]); and the Word or Logos (n. 172[2]); the Lord-from-eternity or Jehovah came into the world, assuming human nature in outmosts or lasts to be the Last as always the First (n. 124[4]); God and Man, the Divine and the human one person (n. 263[1-3]); the trine in the Lord glorified alone (n. 123[2], 262[2, 5, 6], 263); the divine in itself (n. 52, the divine itself, called the Father 262[5], called Jehovah the Father 157[9]); the divine human called the son (n. 262[5], the son conceived from the Divine and born in the world 157[9]); the proceeding Divine called the Holy Spirit (n. 157[9], 262[5]); divine human difficult concept to Christians (n. 262[5], cf. 255[4]); uses of the word divine: meaning God e.g. (n. 48, 52); meaning the divine in or with man e.g. (n. 285[2], 313[2]); in the phrase “divine of the Lord” (n. 98[3], 99, 321[6] occurring especially in “acknowledgment of the divine of the Lord” 259[3] equated with the Holy Spirit 231[6]).


Good and Truth. Neither itself alone (n. 10-13, 233); character when separated only seeming (n. 14, how can be 15); what may be considered good and truth (n. 195[2, 3]); all things referable to (n. 5[2], 11, 157[6]); come from the Lord (n. 157[6]); are the divine with man (n. 313[2]); are variations of forms of the mind (n. 195[3]); natural and spiritual (n. 312); marriage of them (n. 7); as each more distinct union more perfect (n. 4[4]); origin of the marriage the Lord (n. 8); from reception of them by angel and man Lord called husband (n. 8); a marriage of them throughout Word (n. 21); marriage in original creation (n. 9); severed (n. 9, a chief instance 22); restoration constant divine effort (n. 9, so man united to Lord 21); into this marriage everyone meant to come (n. 16); as found in cause or effect (n. 12); church and heaven such a marriage (n. 21); marriage of good and truth and union of love and wisdom identical (n. 7).


Good. Meaning, embraces all things of love (n. 11, is the enjoyment of living according to divine order 279[5]); a composite of affections (n. 279[5]); good of life (n. 325[2], 326[8]); use (n. 233[5]); link with love (n. 5[2], 7, 195[2]); goods do not save the unregenerate (n. 86); cannot coexist with evil in the internal of thought (n. 195).


Truth. Embracing all things of wisdom (n. 11, link with wisdom and the understanding 5[2], 11[2], 195[2]); need for knowledge of truths (n. 328[5], one becomes spiritual by means of truths and life according to them 84[6]); civil, moral, and spiritual truths (n. 36); turning of truth to falsity pictured (n. 288).


Gospel. Such as are not reached by it (n. 254).


Government. Manner of Lord’s government of the universe (n. 162[2]); of the angelic heaven (n. 163); of hell (n. 299, 307, cf. 26); of the wicked in the world (n. 307[2]); government of man’s volitions and thinking (n. 70[3]); government by the Lord’s divine love and wisdom is providence (n. 1). On governments in heaven see Heaven.


Happiness. Everyone created to live forever in happiness (n. 324[6]); eternal life also eternal blessedness (n. 324[6]); the felicities of heaven indescribable (n. 39); bestowed on angels and those becoming angels by the Lord from Himself in them, and why in this way (n. 27[2], cf. 96[5]); on removal of lusts of evil and falsity (n. 39[2]); exist in infinite variety in every affection of good and truth (n. 39[2]); happiness grows with closeness to the Lord (n. 37); exalted as higher degrees of mind are opened (n. 37); keeps step with wisdom (n. 39); each one comes to the highest joy possible to him (n. 254[3]); it fills an angel completely (n. 39[2]); this happiness not manifest in world usually, unless in peace of mind after struggle with evil (n. 41).


Healing. Evils of the life’s love cured by spiritual means, as diseases by natural (n. 281[2]); the means things civil, moral, and spiritual (n. 281[3], 283); fear and love as means (n. 283); healing only the understanding not enough, the will must be healed (n. 282).


Heart. What is not in the heart passes away from the understanding (n. 172[6]); heartbeat and respiration natural life-principle, governing bodily life, the mind’s will spiritual life-principle, governing man’s mind (n. 193[2]).


Heat. In spiritual world is love going out from the Lord as sun (n. 4, 292[3]); like natural heat with different effects in recipients (n. 160, 292); source of one’s life’s vital heat (n. 195).


Heaven. Purpose in creation (n. 27[2], 323); object of the divine love (n. 27[2]); goal of providence (n. 27[2], 323); is from mankind (n. 27, 323); in natural world called the church and the human heaven (n. 30, in the spiritual world the angelic heaven 30, 60, 64, 162[2]); what is said of latter true of former (n. 30, cf. 324[2]); from Lord and not from angels (n. 28, 29[3]); how Lord present with them (n. 31); general description of heaven (n. 61, 62, 299-306); heaven in human form (n. 204, like one man before the Lord 64-68, 190, of which He is soul 254[3], 326[9]); called heavenly man (n. 326[9, 10], divine man 164, 254[3], divine heavenly man 68); each society in human form (n. 64, the many societies 65); each angel (n. 64); from infancy every person his association in this divine man (n. 164); as to his spirit in a society there (n. 278[6], 296[6], how meant 307[2]); form of heaven form of all the affections of the divine love, which only He who is love and wisdom itself can unite (n. 63); heaven offers an image of the infinite and eternal (n. 60-63); myriads compose it and myriads enter annually (n. 63); all infants enter it and as many adults as are affections of good (n. 63); from many religions (n. 326[10], 254[3]); no one is admitted merely out of mercy (n. 338); must bring what is angelic (n. 60); acknowledge God and live aright (n. 328); heaven in man affection from love of God (n. 63, union of good and truth in him 21, union with the Lord 28, 30, an abiding with the Lord to eternity 27[2]); endless development in heaven (n. 37); into prime of life (n. 324[4]. Outward organization of heaven: two kingdoms and innumerable communities (n. 217[4]); features: governments and administrations, trade, (n. 217[4], signs of distinction and wealth of life (n. 217[5]). Phenomenon of light in the three heavens (n. 166[1-3]).


Hell. Evil itself hell (n. 100[2]); form of all lusts of evil (n. 296[13]); in human form but monstrous (n. 204); inverted human being (n. 296); antipodal to heaven (n. 300); myriads of spirits (n. 296); are lusts of evil and derivative false fancies (n. 300); acknowledge nature and one’s own prudence alone (n. 205); Lord casts no one into hell (n. 329); His kingdom over it (n. 26); as nothing before the Lord, meaning (n. 19); how Lord rules it (n. 278[6]); how it serves (n. 26); its uncleanness (n. 38[1, 2], 340[6]); its wretchedness (n. 38[2], 217[6]); lowest, middle, and highest hell (n. 167); the light in each (n. 167[1-3]); infernal communities (n. 278b [6]); no infernal kingdom fills the world (n. 250[4]); unconscious association with hell (n. 279[6], 307[2]); unaware in hell when in evil (n. 101[2]); divine love leads the evil in hell and rescues them from it (n. 337).


Heresies. In Christendom named (n. 238, 259); two prevalent (n. 318[2]); predestination cruel heresy (n. 329[2], 330[8]); only those born in the church saved a heresy (n. 329[3], 330[5]); ease of confirming a heresy (n. 318[2]); only truth of the church discloses what is heresy (n. 318[6]).


Hieroglyphics. Source in knowledge of correspondences (n. 255[2]).


Holy Spirit. Meaning of sin against the Holy Spirit (n. 98[3], 231[6]). See under God.


Hope. And the absence of foreknowledge (n. 178).


House. One finds one’s house ready hereafter (n. 338[4]); where alone one can dwell (n. 338[4]).


Human Being. Created in image and likeness of God (n. 328[5], 123); meaning will and understanding to be receptacles respectively of divine love and divine wisdom (n. 328[5]); these receptacles formed from conception (n. 324[11], 328[5]); image and likeness inhere in faculties of liberty and rationality (n. 328[6], at most inverted but not destroyed 328[6]); man a recipient of life (n. 308); recipiency essential human principle (n. 293, 321[5]); man something actual because God is all (n. 46[3]); man’s life his love 33); is form of his love (n. 319, 28); man’s spirit affection and the thought thence (n. 196); state and love to which he was created (n. 275); by creation a heaven in miniature (n. 67); born into love of self and world 82[2]); from birth a miniature hell (n. 251[2]); wicked a miniature hell, good a miniature heaven (n. 296[13], man either a heaven or a hell in least form 299, 306); in evil and in good, else cannot live (n. 227[2]); born on lowest level of life, corporeal-sensuous (n. 276); civil, moral and spiritual growth to come (n. 276, 322); corrupt nature and engrafting from the tree of life (n. 296[2], 332[4]); association with the spiritual world (n. 296[6], 23); man created to live to eternity 324); lives a human being after death (n. 274). As Divine Providence is mainly about God and man, much about man, as about the Lord, must be placed under separate entries, such as the Decalogue, the life’s love, reformation and regeneration, and on the constitution of the human person, inmosts and outmosts, and so on.


Hypocrisy. When lighter or graver (n. 231[4]); mention of hypocrites (n. 14, 89, 104[2], 109, 222[2], 224[1, 3], 228, 231[4]).


Idealists. (n. 46[2], 309[3]). Called visionaries (n. 46[2], meaning they give no substance to things, even in themselves 309[3], but theorize things exist only in ideas of them 46[2], cf. 46[3]).


Idolatry. Origin in knowledge of correspondences (n. 255[2, 3]); spread of (n. 255[3]); idolatry in Christendom (n. 254[5]); why idols worshipped (n. 254[5]); can be innocent (n. 254[5]); service of Mohammedanism against (n. 255[2-4]); interior idolaters (n. 154[2], unable to shun evils as sins 154, their worship 154[2]).


Image and Likeness of God. Meaning (n. 273[2], 328[5]); in universe (n. 52, 8, cf. 56); in man (n. 8, 27[2], 58, 322); seemingly destroyed (n. 328[6], 123[3]); enable to growth as civil, moral, and spiritual being (n. 322); heaven the very image and likeness (n. 163).


Immediacy. (n. 17, 172[6], 221, 254, cf. 338-340).


Immortality. Everyone immortal, why (n. 96[7]); function of body’s death (n. 324[3]); ancient sages’ idea, source of it (n. 324[3]); instinct of immortality turned into desire to perpetuate name (n. 274); difference from eternal life (n. 96[7]).


Impediments. Reference to an appendix, long discontinued, in the Psalm books of the Swedes (n. 258[5]).


Incarnation. (n. 124[4]), and see God.


Infants. All children who die enter heaven (n. 324[9], wherever born 328[8], cf. everyone’s association from infancy with heaven 164[5]); their maturing there (n. 324[9], 136[6]); evidence man could in same way here (n. 324[9]).


Infinite and Eternal. Extent to which can be comprehended (n. 46); abstract ideas helpful (n. 46); by thought abstracted from space and time (n. 46[2], 51, cf. 48); angelic idea of (n. 48); no infinity of space and time (n. 46[2]); comprehending infinite and eternal same as the Divine (n. 48); image of in variety, fruitfulness of all things and in powers of reproduction (n. 56[1-3]); image in man in marriage of good and truth (n. 58[2]); in fructification and multiplication of affection and perception without end (n. 57); image of the infinite and eternal offers in an angelic heaven (n. 60, 62); on outlook of providence on the infinite and eternal see Providence.


Infinite and Finite. Meant by each (n. 52); manner of conjunction of infinite with finite (n. 53[3], 54, 57).


Influx. Two reasons for term (n. 165); is spiritual, not physical (n. 165); from higher to lower (n. 314); from external to internal a fallacy (n. 150[2]); the all-inclusive influx (n. 294[6]); in man’s life (n. 287, 251[6]); course of influx in affections and thought (n. 28[3], 29[2], 33[2, 3], 321[3]); every form changes influx into its own nature (n. 160, 292[1-3], 327, 294[6]); good and truth flowing into hell (n. 288, 307); noncoercive influx (n. 129, 321[3], cf. equilibrium in which human being is; seeking answer by influx 321[3]); mistake of awaiting influx (n. 200, 210, 321[3]); influx into senses seen, why not as readily influx in inner life (n. 308[2], 312[2]).


Information. (n. 105, 168[1, 5], 208, 326[6], 335)—so scientia and, especially scientifica translated, associated with the memory.


Inmosts, Intermediates, Outmosts. In inner life of person: inmost, life one has from Lord (n. 13, the life’s love 125, faculties of liberty and rationality in which Lord resides 96[5] and which underlie will and understanding 285); intermediates all that follows from inmosts to outmosts (n. 124[4], found in the internal of thought 125, also called interiors = internal of thought 233[1, 3]); internal of will and understanding (n. 103); outmosts found in external of thought (n. 125, same as external man and external will and understanding 103 and as external of the spirit 104); i.e. all these terms spoken of man’s inner life or the spirit); outmosts rarely of body (n. 220[2, 3], 200, a temporal outmost 220[3], an instrument of the spirit 103). The Lord’s action on inmosts and on all that follows to outmosts (n. 119[2]); this unknown to man (n. 125, 120, 174, and internals not at his disposal 180[6, 7]); governed by Lord alone (n. 199[2]); man would wreck (n. 180[1, 6, 7]); divine activity from inmosts and outmosts simultaneously (n. 124[4], 220[3]); what it accomplishes conditioned by what man does in outmosts, where the Lord and he meet (n. 180[5], 125, and where man makes his choices 125); what man needs to know for his participation (n. 125); reason for this (n. 125). In the Incarnation: assumption of human nature in outmosts by the Lord-from-eternity (n. 124[4]).


Innocence. Of early mankind (n. 275).


Insanity. Unwisdom of diabolical love (n. 223); seeing only falsity (n. 298); and evil as good (n. 298[3]); other-world effort to rescue from it (n. 223, 298[2]); kept from appearing to world (n. 281[3]).


Instinct. In birds (n. 317).


Intelligence. Perception and confirmation of truth (n. 318[8]); ability to confirm anything at all not intelligence (n. 318[8]); angelic view of intelligence in human being (n. 293); in itself a nullity (n. 187[2]); pride of one’s own intelligence (n. 197, 206, 321[8]); one’s own can give human form only to externals (n. 298[4]); intelligence with the good and the evil respectively (n. 298[6]); progress from knowledge to intelligence to wisdom (n. 75[1, 3]); those in their own intelligence, and those in intelligence from the Lord (n. 242[2]).


Intention. Man knows his intentions (n. 197); self-examination extends best to one’s intentions, why (n. 152[2]); why one is permitted to think evils even to intending them (n. 283); love of his will detected in intention (n. 281[2]); evils ousted from intention (n. 281[3].


Intent regard. In spiritual world effects presence of another (n. 29, cf. 50, 326); reason it does (n. 326).


Internal and External. See under affection and thought, and inmosts, intermediates, and outmosts.


Israel. Brought into Canaan to represent the Lord’s church (n. 243); why could not do so for long (n. 246); came not to know Lord but even hated Him (n. 247).


Jehovah. See entry God.


Jests. About Word or about holy things by those acknowledging the holiness a lighter or more serious kind of profanation (n. 231).


Jesuits. Order of (n. 222[2]).


Jews. Known by facial features (n. 277[2]); why permitted to crucify the Lord (n. 247); persist in denial of Lord, why (n. 260[2]); preserved for sake of Hebrew Word (n. 260[3]).


Judge. Just (n. 217[3] and unjust 109, 168[4], 296[11]).


Judgment. A last judgment on a first Christian era has taken place (n. 264[4]); prior to it power of hell was prevailing over that of heaven (n. 263[3]); made possible revelation of spiritual sense of Word and of the genuine truths in which it resides (n. 264[4]); an ensuing enlightenment (n. 263[3]).


Kingdom. Lord’s kingdom one of uses (n. 26, 250[3]); extends over hell (n. 26); heaven’s two kingdoms (n. 217[4]); no infernal kingdom filling world (n. 250[4]).


Knowledge. Knowledges called helps serve as tools do a workman (n. 96[3]); knowledge inexhaustible (n. 57[2]); man could have been born into light of knowledge (n. 275); has an implanted knowledge in things purely rational, moral and spiritual (n. 317); only knowing of God not saving (n. 330[6], see 328[5]); a knowledge which is that of the memory simply (n. 168[1, 5], 105); not knowing one’s lot hereafter is according to one’s affections no excuse (n. 305); knowledge of means by which one is saved not lacking to anyone (n. 329[1, 3]); in what is angelic a knowledge of the way from walking in it, a walking in the way from knowledge of it (n. 60).


Laws. Precepts in every religion like those in the Decalogue (n. 254[2]); regarded in non-Christian nations as divine laws (n. 254[2]); living civil and ethical laws as divine one becomes spiritual (n. 322[2]); spiritual and celestial laws of order (n. 32[2]). For laws of providence see Providence.


Leading and Teaching, the Lord’s. Man led and taught by the Lord (n. 154-174); contrary to apparent self-guidance (n. 154); reason for the reality, man lives from the Lord alone (n. 156); life’s will is led, life’s understanding is taught (n. 156); leading by influx, teaching by enlightenment (n. 165, 166); leading every moment (n. 202[2], necessity for this 202[3]); leading and teaching done from heaven (n. 162, 163, thus from Lord Himself 163); mediately by Word (n. 135, 172); the means laws of providence (n. 221); this the outwardly done leading and teaching (n. 174, preserving the appearance of self-guidance 174[2], 202[3]); how led and taught inwardly no one aware (n. 174); everyone taught according to an understanding agreeing with his love, more does not remain (n. 172[5]); those led by Lord (n. 253); sign of it (n. 208); are raised above the proprium (n. 316); those who prefer to be led by themselves (n. 208).


Liberty and Rationality. See Freedom and Reason.


Life. Man lives from the Lord alone (n. 156, 157, the one fountain of life 292); what is living in man from the proceeding Divine, joined to him by contact (n. 57, adjoined 58); life is love (n. 13, love and wisdom 13); inmost life and life as received (n. 13); three degrees of life (n. 324).


Life’s Love (also rendered life-love, e.g. (n. 139[4]). Inmost in man (n. 125, is in the will, which is the man himself 284); uppermost love (n. 199[3], either heavenly [of Lord and neighbor] or infernal [of self and world] 199[3], and with much variety 106); pervades man (n. 106, 199[3]); is ruling love 113); domain is over mind and body (n. 106[2], by what means 106[2], manner illustrated 107, shown to reason 108); life’s love comes about in way man disposes externals where Lord and he act together (n. 199[3], is determined by one’s way of life 105); bound to have derivative affections or lusts (n. 106[2], produces subordinate loves from itself 194); these its court and retinue (n. 113); has a vicar (n. 109, 110, a love of means 109, employed falsely or truly 109, 110); life’s love in internal of thought (hence “thought of the heart” (n. 139[4]), love of means in external of thought (n. 105); affections of the life’s love known to Lord alone (n. 197); leads affections and thoughts from them in His providence (n. 192, 193, 199, 200e); the tension between providence and the will’s love (n. 183); the healing of the will’s love 281[2, 3], 283); one can be only where one’s ruling love prevails (n. 338[5]); forms a faith for itself (n. 136[8], an understanding also 163[7], cf. 101[3], 265[4]); life’s love of infant in heaven (n. 136[6]); life’s or ruling love remains after death (n. 17, 231[7], 318, 319).


Light. A spiritual and a natural light, similarities and difference (n. 166[1, 3]); spiritual light in essence (n. 317); source (n. 166); enlightening man (n. 166, 317); three degrees of light in heaven described (n. 166[2], three in hell 167); all in spiritual world see in their own light, why (n. 167[2]); light of confirmation (n. 168[5], difference from light of perception 318[8]).


Looking to God. Meaning of looking to God in one’s life (n. 20, 93, 125).


Lord. God of heaven and earth (n. 330[6]); veritable man (n. 65); alone is heaven (n. 29[3]); is the Word (n. 172[2, 3]). See God.


Lot Hereafter. Lord foresees one’s lot (n. 333[2], provides for it 333[2], one’s especial place 338[4]); why foreknowledge kept from man (n. 179); one’s life awaits one (n. 179[2]).


Love and Wisdom. Perceived only as one (n. 4[5], cf. 11); effective only together (n. 3, 4, 15); love meant is not love separate from wisdom (n. 13); hence such phrasing as “divine love is of divine wisdom,” “divine wisdom is of divine love” (n. 4); love unites itself to wisdom and causes wisdom to be united to it (n. 15); joint elevation, wisdom into light of heaven, love into its warmth (n. 15); ascent of former perceived, of latter only obscurely (n. 34).


Love. Manifold (n. 33); in general, love of good and love of evil (n. 33); or heavenly love and infernal (n. 106); four, love to the Lord, to the neighbor, of self and the world (n. 106, 107, 199[3]); definitions love of the Lord, love of the neighbor (n. 94); love of neighbor and self-love contrasted (n. 276[2]); one’s first life love of self and world (n. 73[3]); love of self and distorted thought (n. 233[11]); is love of the proprium (n. 233[12]); bitterest enemy of God and providence (n. 210[2]); meaning love of the world (n. 139[5], 215[6], 278b[3]); love purified in the understanding, or defiled, character in each case (n. 15).


Wisdom. Three degrees of wisdom in man (n. 34); how connected (n. 34[2], growth in them 34[2]); no one wise except from Lord (n. 36, 34[3]); more nearly conjoined with Lord the wiser (n. 34); wisdom with and without love (n. 35); enjoyment of it would cease if wisdom was not endless (n. 335[2]); though angelic wisdom ineffable (n. 34[3] and growing to eternity 335[3] cannot approach divine wisdom 335[3]); ascent to the palace of wisdom by twelve steps (n. 36).


Lusts. Affections of the love of evil (n. 33[2]); innumerable (n. 296); in natural man (n. 33[2], in internal man (n. 119); beset mind’s interiors thence affecting body (n. 38, cf. 112); pent up, consume interiors of mind (n. 278b[2]); the mental partners of lusts (n. 206[2], 113); the lusts of one’s evils not perceived by one (n. 113); how lusts appear visually in hell (n. 296[2]); shut out Lord (n. 33[2]); on man’s removal of evils from the external man Lord purifies man from the lusts of evil in the internal man (n. 119).


Luther. Swedenborg’s talking with him in other world (n. 50[4]); his repudiation of faith alone (n. 258[6]).


Machiavellians. Crafty sensuous reasoners likened to them (n. 310[2])


Man. See Human Being.


Marriage. Of good and truth, see good and truth. Of man and woman: high character of true marital love (n. 144[2]); its communication with the highest heaven (n. 144[3]).


Mass. The mass in language not understood by the people (n. 257[5]); the supper made corporeal and material, and given the prime place in worship (n. 257[6]).


Means. Divine providence employs means, infinite in number and variety (n. 335); mercy not immediate but employs means (n. 221); the life’s love has a love of means for vicar (n. 109); there are means of salvation (n. 329, cf. 296[10]). See providence, mercy, life’s love, and salvation.


Meditation and Reflection. On ends that are uses in one’s business or occupation (n. 296[10], for appearing a civil, moral, and spiritual person 296[10]); in deep meditation may appear in spiritual world (n. 296[6]).


Melancthon. (n. 50[4]).


Memory. What it is organically (n. 279[6]); an external and an internal memory (n. 227); contents of external, knowledge (n. 233[8]); likened to ruminatory stomach of some animals (n. 233[8]); truths only in understanding and memory are outside the man (n. 233[7, 8]); memory and the external of thought (n. 105); all one’s life written on the internal memory, which is one’s book of life (n. 227.


Mercy. Pure love is pure mercy (n. 337); providence acts out of pure mercy, which shows itself or has done so in six ways, the Incarnation one (n. 337); unmediated mercy impossible (n. 221, 279[4, 6], 338, employs means, namely, the laws of providence 221); cf. on instant salvation by immediate mercy (n. 338, 340[1, 4]).


Methods. Providence has methods (n. 335, infinite in number and variety, hidden from man 336); are measures for making man a man and perfecting will and understanding (n. 335).


Mind. Representing mens and animus both. Mens. The inclusive term: of it said there are three degrees (n. 75, natural, spiritual, and celestial 147, with which knowledge, understanding, and wisdom are associated respectively 75); when in natural mind alone and spiritual closed (n. 147); natural mind common to man and beast (n. 321[2]); spiritual-rational truly human mind (n. 321[2]); nature of mind determines nature of body and the whole man (n. 112); mind has its life in end, cause and effect (n. 178[2]); how its interiors and exteriors are governed by the Lord (n. 307[3]); is man’s spirit which survives death, is either heaven or hell in least form (n. 299, places him in the world of spirit and in company there 307[2]). Animus. Consisting of affections, perceptions, thoughts (n. 56[2]); in disorder, there can be no reformation of a man (n. 141); its peace on moral victory (n. 41); mental elation (n. 279[3]).


Miracle. No one reformed by, why (n. 130-133); induces persuasion, not faith (n. 130-131); wicked driven to faith by miracle only for the moment (n. 133); miracles affect the good and the evil differently (n. 133); good do not desire or rely on them (n. 133); why so many miracles in Old Testament days (n. 132[2]); none today, why (n. 131, 133).


Misfortune. States of misfortune in which no one is reformed (n. 140).


Mohammedanism. Arose under providence (n. 255[2], to destroy idolatries of many peoples 255[2, 4] and give them some knowledge of the Lord 255[4], cf. 255[1]); adapted to oriental genius (n. 255[4], 256); salvation in it as among other non-Christians (n. 255[5]); Mohammedan heavens (n. 255[5]).


Moravians. (n. 259, 321[3]).


Motivations. Subject in much discussion, as of life’s love as ruling love (n. 113, as of one’s dealing with standing or wealth 215, 220[8, 10], as in business 220[11], in discharge of his office by a judge 168[4], 296[11], in shunning evils, for fear of disrepute, or as sins, 101[2], 118).


Name. Full significance of a name in the spiritual world, why (n. 230); all that is conveyed in the name of God (n. 230[2]); to whom in the other world utterance of the name of Jesus is possible (n.


53[2], 262[8]); name one receives in the spiritual world (n. 230).


Nations. Distinguishable by features (n. 277[2]); most beyond Christendom regard precepts like those of the Decalogue not as civil but as divine laws (n. 254 [3]); Israel punished by nation signifying the evil being committed by Israel (n. 251[3]).


Natural, Spiritual, Celestial. What is embraced in the term natural (n. 220[4]); natural communicates with spiritual by correspondence, not by continuity with it (n. 41); person being regenerated from natural becomes spiritual (n. 83[6]); many, loving the natural degree of life, do not desire to withdraw from it and become spiritual (n. 324[10]); those confirming the self-love and worldly love of the natural level of life and attendant evils remain natural and become sensuous-corporeal (n. 83[3]). See Degrees, Mind.


Nature. Its powers every moment imparted to it (n. 3[2, 3]); nature from eternity, and creation from nature, unthinkable (n. 51); reflections of divine love and wisdom in nature (n. 3[2, 3]); the things proper to nature and derived from them proper to man (n. 219); acknowledgment only of nature hidden in every evil (n. 206[3], 205).


Neighbor. Not the person, the good in him (n. 94); what love of the neighbor is and its sure association with love of the Lord (n. 94). See Love.


Obotferdigas Foerhinder. (n. 258[5]).


Odor. Every enjoyment corresponds to an odor and in spiritual world may be turned into one (n. 304); odor of the heavenly, the infernal (n. 304); infernal enjoyments foul odors (n. 340[6]); good is fragrant, evil malodorous (n. 305).


Opposites. Contend to destroy each other (n. 233[2], 11[4], 18, 24, 100); a thing is known from its opposite 38[2], instanced 24); heaven and hell opposites (n. 300, 69).


Order. God is order (n. 331[2]); is the law of His order (n. 331[2]); laws of order fixed at creation (n. 332); no order without laws (n. 331[2]); providence is the divine order regarding the salvation of men (n. 331[2]).


Organization. See Form.


Outmosts. See Inmosts.


Parable. The Lord’s providential use of parable (n. 231[9]). Particular. See General.


Paul. His meaning in Romans 3:28 (n. 115).


Perception. Like thought a derivative of spiritual light (n. 173); from same fountain as life (n. 173[2]); perceptiveness spurred by contrasts (n. 24); perception placed with internal of thought (n. 105, 106, 108); consort of interior affections 194); many things on being heard are perceived to be so (n. 136, 168[1, 2], cf. 150[2]); influx of Lord into love of good and its affections, through these into perceptions and 4thoughts (n. 33[3], received and reacted to in perception and thought 28[3]); perceptions and thoughts of love of evil as many as falsities favoring the evils (n. 33); one in perception of spiritual truth also in perception of civil and moral (n. 36); perception by sensation that one lives from the Lord alone not given in this world (n. 156); man not to perceive the hidden activities of providence (n. 176).


Perfection. Ascends by discrete degrees (n. 279[9]); angel perfected in wisdom to eternity (n. 334, in degree attained 334); increase in a degree only to its height (n. 34[2]); what is perfected to eternity cannot be perfected in an instant (n. 338[10]); truths the means of perfecting man as to the mind (n. 335, goods as to the will 335); in civil natural life, rational moral life, heavenly spiritual life (n. 335).


Permission. Not as if willed (n. 16, 234, i.e., is an act of toleration); permission of evil (n. 296[7], 234, 286); of evil and falsity (n. 16); of thinking the evils of one’s life-love (n. 281[2]); of man’s introducing evils of life into will and understanding (n. 296[7]); of evils of life and heresies in worship (n. 233[13]); of the Fall (n. 275 or debasement of love to self-love 275, 276); of arrogation of divine power (n. 257[3]); of impieties and glorying in them (n. 249); of doctrinal contention and heresies (n. 259[2]); of wars (n. 251); thus of evil coming about or existing, but also of coming out—evils must appear in order to be removed (n. 278); versus repression (n. 278b[5]); means with wicked, from whom only evil can proceed, continual permission to bring about continual withdrawal (n. 296[7]); why permissions, end salvation (n. 16, 275-284); how tolerance works towards this end in man’s inner life (n. 296[8]); the laws of providence are the laws on permissions (n. 234, 249[2, 3]); are the causes of tolerance (n. 234, 249); on knowledge of law of nonadmission to deep religious experience and life until possibility of lifelong continuance in it depends knowledge of permissions (n. 232); if no introduction inwardly into good until one can be kept in it to the close of life, evil must be permitted (n. 232); leading from evil to good cannot be done without permission of evil (n. 234[2]).


Place. In the spiritual world one knows his place in another’s home (n. 338[4], in large gatherings 338[4]).


Pleasure. Predicated of wisdom and thought (n. 195[1, 2]); as enjoyment is of love and affection. See Enjoyment.


Power. Each thing in the order of creation is endowed with power, but this is effective only from Him who bestowed it (n. 3[3]); how widely true this supply of power is (n. 88); man’s power to will and understand is from Him who is power itself (n. 88); true of man’s two capacities, liberty and rationality (n. 88[2]); Lord empowers will for shunning evils and understanding for thought of God (n. 329); the evil no actual power (n. 19[2]); believe themselves powerful, good do not (n. 19[2]); power of hell over heaven prior to Last Judgment (n. 263[3]).


Prayer. The Lord’s (n. 230); imploring the Lord’s aid (n. 278, 281[3], 296[15]); imploring providence (n. 184); praying to God to lead one’s thoughts (n. 191[2]); for divine leading (n. 157[8]); prayer to God as present, all-knowing and all-powerful (n. 157[8]).


Preaching. Preaching the Word part of the objective guidance of providence (n. 154); immediacy of the Lord’s teaching it not removed by the human ministry (n. 172[6]); preacher’s awareness can be speaking from the spirit of God (n. 172[6], 291); while in external state hereafter may teach the spiritual life as before, in internal state may, like others, see falsity only and do nothing but evil, and utter his self-intelligence (n. 298).


Predestination. All predestined to heaven, no one to hell (n. 322, 329); no predestination (n. 322, as commonly understood 330); everyone can be reformed and regenerated and no other predestination is possible (n. 202[3]); that any are doomed to hell a hurtful belief, denying divine love, divine wisdom (n. 330[1-4], a foolish heresy 330[5], a cruel one 330[8]).


Present. Thinking from what is eternal as well as from what is at present (n. 59); in the spiritual world what brings the presence of another (n. 29, 50, 91[2], 326[1-3]); how this can be (n. 50[2], 326); present with everyone spirits in like affections with him (n. 50[2]).


Preservation. Providence has to do with the preservation of the state of things after creation (n. 2); the preservation of all things depends on the conjunction of the Creator with man (n. 3[3]).


Pride of One’s Own Intelligence. (n. 197, 206, 321[8]). Principle. Two principles of life in everyone (n. 193[2]).


Proceeding. Difference between it and creating (n. 219[2]); what is produced does not proceed but is created (n. 219[2]); nothing can proceed from one except what is in him (n. 219[2], from man what is temporal, from the Lord what is eternal 219[2]); the proceeding divine, the infinite and eternal-from-itself or the Lord in men and angels (n. 55, same as divine providence 55). On the Holy Spirit, the proceeding Divine, see God.


Profanation. A very general sense, any impiety (n. 229); the impious are profaners, yet not profane at heart (n. 229); many kinds of profanation of what is holy (n. 226, 229, 231); profanation of what is holy = profanation by those with knowledge and some measure of acknowledgment of what is holy (n. 231); of this manner of profanation seven kinds, lighter and more serious (n. 231); the seven kinds described (n. 231[1-8]); jests involving the Word (n. 231, lighter and more serious profanation 231); life lived contrary to truths known or acknowledged (n. 231[2], lighter and more serious 231[2]); use of the sense of the letter of the Word to confirm evil loves and false principles, a falsifying and adulterating of the Word (n. 232[3]); pious hypocrisy, issue in other world (n. 231[4]); ascription to self of what is divine (n. 231[5]); acknowledgment of the Word but denial of the Divine of the Lord, blasphemy of the Holy Spirit (n. 231[6]); departure from and denial of divine truths and life once one’s experience (n. 231[7, 8]); the seventh the worst kind (n. 227[3-5], 229, 231[7]); in it the human being ceases to be a human being (n. 226, 227[5]); to whom not possible (n. 228[1, 2]); nonadmission inwardly to truths of wisdom and goods of love, unless man can be kept lifelong in them, is intended to prevent this worst kind of profanation (n. 232, 233[1-12], especially 231[9] and 233[13]).


Progression. Source of anything is inmost in the progression of it (n. 56); constant progress according to laws in nature, also true of providence in the reformation and regeneration of man (n. 332[2-4].


Proprium. (Word kept usually (n. 78, but translation also varied: selfhood 176, 183, man’s own 78, 93, 154[2]). Meaning (n. 93, 206, 211, 215[7], 294[2]); volitional or mental (n. 298[3], 313[2, 3], 316); definition of each (n. 298[3], 321[8]); what each resembles (n. 233[12]); no such proprium as is commonly thought (n. 308, 309, cf. 293); seems to man he is constantly in his proprium (n. 186); its inborn enmity to providence (n. 211); wise by rejection of proprium (n. 189); the Lord can abide in man or angel only in what is His own, and not in their proprium (n. 53[3]).


Providence. Definition or characterization (n. 1, 2, 55, 207, 220[4], 285[2], 324, 331, 332, 337); man its subject (n. 331[3]); governs volitions and thought (n. 70[3], 285[2]); its goal for mankind a heaven (n. 27-45, 202, cluster of objectives 45); object in a human life reformation and salvation (n. 257, 331[3], uniting of good and truth 16, 21); its inmost design re: heaven (n. 64-68, re: hell 69); its outlook on the infinite and eternal (n. 46, 52[1-3], 55-59, 202); has laws which it observes (n. 70, which best reveal its nature 70, and contrary to which the Lord cannot act 331[2], 259); object of all the laws the reformation and salvation of man (n. 279[4]); law of regard to man’s freedom and reason (n. 5, 71, 96[1, 7], 176); even in the struggle with evil (n. 6, 100, 114, 116, 118); of no coercion (n. 7, 129, self-compulsion orderly 145); law on objective guidance (n. 8, 154, letting man’s self-guidance remain apparent fact 174, 176); law on hidden guidance (n. 9, 175, 176, 336, cf. 186); why secret (n. 176, 180, 182, 211[1, 2]); illustration how secret from activities of soul in body of which we are not aware (n. 174, 180[2, 4, 7, 8], 181, 199[3], 279[7-9], 296[14], 319, 336, cf. 34, 164); law on engaging human prudence—a law in (n. 10, so 249[2]-210 [1, 2], 191, 311); law on handling temporal goals towards eternal ones (n. 11, also 249[2]); law on nonadmission inwardly into truths of faith and goods of charity unless one can be kept in them to the close of life (n. 12, so 221, 249[2]); laws on permission are also laws of providence (n. 234); evil permitted in view of end providence is pursuing (n. 14, 16); providence attends on the good and the evil alike (n. 59, 285-307, without being in man’s evils 287); does not appropriate to man either good or evil (n. 16, 308); the pervasiveness of providence, universal by being in least things 5 heading (n. 201[2], 202, 203[2], 337.1); in least things of nature (n. 201[3]); of human prudence (n. 201[3]); cf. 212[2]); providence acts for man’s salvation from birth to death and on to eternity (n. 332-334); every moment (n. 202[3], 333[2]); out of pure mercy but by means (n. 335); means infinite in number and various, spiritual but also natural, for perfecting life on every level (n. 335); produced through man and the world (n. 187[2]); methods of providence (n. 335, 336, deeply hidden 336); providence and human will at odds (n. 234, 183, 177, 211); tension eased (n. 176[2], 211[2]); providence with the self-seeking (n. 250[3]); human sight of providence: hidden activity of providence never detected (n. 9); would halt human life (n. 176[1, 2]); man would interpose in tenor and order of providence, distort and destroy them (n. 180, 181); providence seen after the event, not before (n. 187); by one in a spiritual state (n. 187); spiritual man’s discernment of it (n. 182, 189[1, 2]); fragmentary human sight (n. 203[2]); arguments of natural man and worshiper of self against providence based on Scripture incident [not done by many (n. 248] recited 236, replied to 241-247); arguments based on inequalities and injustices in world recited (n. 237, replied to 249-253); based on situations in religion recited (n. 238, replied to 254-260); arguments based on what is thought to be revealed belatedly, recited (n. 239, replied to 262-274).


Prudence. Should seem that man has a prudence of his own (n. 191); does not have (n. 70, 191, 293); a debate about it in spiritual world (n. 197[2]); nature of prudence of one’s own (n. 310[1-6], 206); whence it is (n. 321[8], 197, 206, 316); its false premise 312, 316); its greater persuasiveness with the reason (n. 213); those who acknowledge only nature and human prudence constitute hell (n. 205); human prudence hidden in all evil (n. 208[2]); nature of those who acknowledge one’s own prudence alone (n. 208); confirmation in favor of man’s own prudence makes acknowledgment of providence impossible, a reason (n. 187[2]); blindness of such confirmation (n. 235); prudence and being a man (n. 321[1, 2]); question how prudence can be credited with so much (n. 199[2]); prudence not one’s own (n. 311); its premise (n. 311); true is from God (n. 191[1, 2], is implanted by Him 126); own prudence to be used to be led by providence (n. 210); as servant and steward of the Master’s goods (n. 210[2], the prudence with which providence acts as one 210[2]).


Punishment. Not reforming (n. 136[1, 4]); its punishment inscribed on an evil (n. 249[3]); thinking against God rarely punished in this world, why, but in spiritual world (n. 249[1, 3], 278[5]); impieties in thought, even in intention, but not in act, not punished, reason in laws of providence (n. 249[3]).


Purification from Evils. Effected in two ways (n. 25); use of hell towards (n. 21, 25); the Lord’s work and the means (n. 296, an illustration 296[11], and cf. 151[2]); from the many lusts in an evil (n. 120, done by Lord as man desists from evil 119[2]); mistaken ideas on purification from evils (n. 121).


Quakers. (n. 259, 321[3]).


Quality. Whatever exists gets from form its quality or character, its predicates, its relevance (n. 4[2]).


Rational. The rational the development to which the natural degree of the mind can reach (n. 32[2]); by it from the spiritual mind the Lord brings order into the natural mind (n. 147); who have a spiritual rational, a natural rational (n. 154[3]); a rational man’s perception of a truth on hearing it (n. 168[2]).


Rationality. See Freedom and Reason. Reality. See Appearance.


Reason, Reasoners. See Freedom and Reason.


Receptacle. The civil and moral the receptacle of the spiritual (n. 322[2]); as a characterization of the Human Being see human being); passivity not meant (n. 200, 210, 321).


Reformation and Regeneration. Is union of man with the Lord (n. 123, 92); inversion of state from infernal to heavenly (n. 279[4]); from being natural becoming spiritual 83); made necessary because of man’s initial state (n. 83, 277); made possible by possession of liberty and rationality (n. 16[2], 82, 85, 96[5], 87); gradual and lifelong (n. 296). Man’s initial state (n. 83[1, 2]); second, of reformation (n. 83[4, 5], marked by sense of sin and by self-examination 83[5]); third state, regeneration, progressive riddance of evils (n. 83[6]). Self-examination: what it consists in (n. 278); internal or spirit to be examined (n. 152, how done 152, and is only full examination of the external 152). Confession of sins (n. 278b); no sin specified means lulling all to sleep (n. 278b); a universal empty of items (n. 278b). Self-examination, confession of sins part of repentance, way to heaven (n. 114[3], 127); one of two essentials of religion (n. 340[2]); repentance means desisting from sins (n. 121); meaningless to believer in salvation merely out of mercy (n. 340[2]); must precede pardon (n. 280); to repent must look to God manifest (n. 122).


Reformation. When begins (n. 83[4]); three steps in it (n. 151); everyone can be reformed (n. 259[3], 322[1-3]); man making it impossible (n. 154); one is reformed in freedom (n. 43[2]); states in which one is not reformed, being coercive (n. 130-144); let into wisdom in spiritual things, and into love, yet not reformed when love natural (n. 222); internal to be reformed, external by it, the will involved (n. 151); when this occurs (n. 150, 129[3]); chief means of reformation (n. 233[7], 298[5], 143, 16[2]); all reformation done in fullness (n. 277b); therefore must take place in this life (n. 277b, 249, 17, see 328[9], 143); Lord in man’s interiors after reformation (n. 233[3]).


Regeneration. Man’s third state (n. 83[6], its beginning and progress 83[6], in it one acts from charity and makes what pertains to it belong also to his faith 83[6]); attains a union of good and truth in him (n. 83[6]); 58); evils do not damn the regenerating, nor goods save the unregenerate (n. 86); the new man (n. 126).


Religion. Divine provision of a form of religion almost everywhere (n. 326[9]); and of precepts in it like those in the Decalogue (n. 254[2]); two elements which make religion to be religion (n. 326[9], taught by Decalogue 326[11], acknowledgment of God and refraining from evils [or repentance] 340[3], found in all religions 326[9]); salvation in any religion (n. 253, 254[2], 322[4]); a Gentile gives more thought to religion in his life than a Christian (n. 322[5]); a nation living its religion receives what is spiritual in its natural life (n. 322[4]); a nation is led by the Lord according to the precepts of its own religion (n. 254[2]); heaven has a place for all who live well whatever their religion (n. 330[4, 5], composed of human beings from many religions 326[10]); supposition providence would have caused one true religion to exist (n. 259); religion in life, meaning one shuns evils (n. 340[4]); shunning evils as sins Christian religion itself (n. 265, 278[2]); repentance common religion of all churches in Christendom (n. 114[3], 127); religion abolished by belief in instantaneous salvation (n. 340[2]); religion teaching a blind faith is blinding the understanding (n. 144); omitting because of one’s religion to look for sin in oneself (n. 278b[2]); the understanding closed in the name of religion (n. 70[2]); every religion declines (n. 328, why 328[5]).


Remission or Pardon of Sins. Only when evils are quit are they pardoned (n. 279, 280); repentance precedes pardon (n. 280); what remission of sins is (n. 127); remitted does not mean cast out of one (n. 279[2]); the Lord pardons the sins of all (n. 280).


Ruling, Love of. Its rise destroying primitive society (n. 215[3, 5]); when man’s life’s love wants dominion over others (n. 251); and self-love (n. 215[8]); inspired by self-love, most difficult combat (n. 146); the crafty sensuous man, disbeliever in providence, learning the desires of others to gain the upper hand (n. 310[5]); a love that cannot be kept in bonds (n. 251, 231[7]); entrance of the love in Catholicism (n. 257[3-5]).


Sabbath. Place in worship of the Israelitish church (n. 21).


Salvation. Salvation of all the Lord’s will (n. 221); breadth of salvation (n. 253, 325, 326[9]); outside church (n. 350[5]); salvation and knowledge of the Lord (n. 325, 330[6]); salvation object of providence (n. 257, active towards it from man’s birth to death and to eternity 332-334); how effected (n. 330[6], 257); who saved (n. 333); the desire for salvation (n. 333); salvation despite heretical ideas (n. 259[3]); if not saved one’s own fault (n. 327, 328[9]); instant salvation an error of the time (n. 279[4]); impossible, why (n. 279[5, 6], 338[9]); basis of the belief (n. 338[2-5]); who entertain the idea and who do not (n. 339, 338[8]); regarded inwardly, all Christian teaching is against instantaneous salvation (n. 338[8, 9]); thought of instantaneous salvation abolishes religion (n. 340[2, 3], induces a false sense of security (n. 340[4], is a flying fiery serpent 340); no mortal could have been saved had the Lord not come into the world (n. 124[4]).


Satan. No one doomed to be a satan (n. 330[3], none but once a human being 27). See Devil.


Seed. Primal form of father’s love (n. 277[3]); clothed with a body by the mother (n. 277[3]); cf. n. 330.


Self-examination. When thorough (n. 152). See Reformation. Self-intelligence. See Proprium.


Self-love. What it is (n. 206, 215[6]); its distortion of life (n. 233[11]); bitterest enemy of God and providence (n. 210[2]); source of evils (n. 276[2], head of all evils (n. 277). See Love.


Self-righteous. (n. 90, 114[2], 121[2], where translation of meritorium[a]); elsewhere “done for merit” (n. 326[8] or some variant 93).


Sensation. A sense [sight, hearing, etc.] must have an organ or form (n. 279[6]); the mind is perceiving by the senses (n. 314, 150[2]); being contrary to the appearance, little known of this (n. 336); understanding from the will flows into the senses, constitutes them and uses them as instruments (n. 314); effect is according to the form (n. 314); sight formed to receive the light in which one is (n. 167[2]).


Sensuous Men. Called serpents of the tree of knowledge by the ancients (n. 310[1, 6]); their character (n. 310[2]); their thinking (n. 310[3]); their hell (n. 310[4, 5]).


Shunning Evils as Sins. Evils to be shunned as sins pointed out in Decalogue (n. 265[3]); see Decalogue and Reformation. “Shun” more with sense of fleeing, or of avoiding, not of fighting (n. 278, 296[12]).


Sickness. By itself not reforming (n. 141, 142[2]); why (n. 141, 142[1, 2]); mental illness (n. 141).


Simple first substance. Fallacy, is most complex (n. 6). Simultaneous. See Degrees.


Slavery. Opposite of heavenly freedom (n. 43); is being led by evil (n. 43); everyone wishes not to be enslaved (n. 148); yet does not desire so much to escape spiritual enslavement (n. 149); without truths distinguishing spiritual slavery and spiritual freedom one mistakes the two (n. 149).


Society. Primitive and later (n. 215[2-5]); one may readily know what helps or hurts society (n. 77, can then conclude what does so in the sphere of the spirit 77[2]). On communities in the spiritual world see Heaven and Hell.


Soul. Paternal and maternal share in offspring (n. 277[3], cf. 330); human soul (n. 199[3]); unknown activities of soul in body (n. 174, 296[14], 336); Lord the soul of heaven (n. 162, 163); concept of the soul hereafter held by the sensuous (n. 310[3]); soul meant as heart of an entity (n. 28[4], 110, 193[3]).


Sound. Affection of one’s love known from sound of voice (n. 194[2]); known to angels (n. 194[2], 224[3]); internal concealed interiorly in tone of voice (n. 224[3]); hypocrite so recognized (n. 224[3], suffers impediment in utterance 231[4]).


Space and Time, proper to nature (n. 51); the Divine is apart from space and time (n. 51); Divine and infinite cannot be conceived of in space and time (n. 49); thought abstracted from space and time, its grasp (n. 51); affection and thought not in space and time (n. 49, nor are angels and spirits, being forms of affection and thought 50); space and time as appearance in the spiritual world (n. 162[3]).


Speech. In spiritual world from inflection of tone one’s thought known (n. 194[3]); there one can speak only as one thinks (n. 224[3], 231[4], 262[8]); manner of speech when spirits speak with a man (n. 135).


Sphere. In spiritual world emanation from one’s affections and thought (n. 196); revealing one’s character (n. 196); the enjoyments of an angel, of a community, of heaven, of hell surrounding each (n. 303); union effected by these spheres (n. 196).


Spirals. Turning to or away from the Lord represented as spirals of organic forms of mind winding upward or downward (n. 319[2, 3]).


Spirit, the Holy. The sin against the Holy Spirit (n. 98[3]). See God.


Spirits. Human beings hereafter, forms of affection and thought (n. 61, 196); no one reformed by conversation with them (n. 134, 134b); other-world prophetic experience (n. 134[1-4]); spirits present with one (n. 50[2]).


Spiritual World. Nothing possible in natural world which has no connection with the spiritual world (n. 74[3], cf. 251[4]); constant emanation of good and truth from heaven, and of evil and falsity from hell); man in equilibrium between (n. 23); each one as to his spirit in a society good or evil (n. 278[6], how so 307[2]); movement from one society to another according to one’s life and its changes (n. 307[2]); one first enters the other world in its intermediate world, the world of spirits (n. 307[3]). See Heaven, Hell.


Subject. Literally, what is placed under something: the organized substances of the mind which are what affections and thoughts exist in are subjects (n. 279[6], 319[2]); human beings subjects of closer reception of the divine (n. 324[2]); good can be turned into evil by the recipient subject, man as to his proprium (n. 327); no activity except on a subject and on it through means (n. 331[3]); man the subject of providence (n. 331[3]).


Subsistence. Or continuance, is perpetual coming to be (n. 3[2]).


Substance. There is an only substance, the source of all things (n. 6, 157[2], the sun of the spiritual world 5, produced from the Lord who is in it 5); this substance in everything created, but with infinite variety (n. 5, 6); infinitely more in it than can appear in derivative substances, why (n. 6[2]).


Supper, the Holy. Confirms the remission of sins in one repenting (n. 122); instituted to direct the penitent to God manifest (n. 122); in it the attention of all is fastened on the Lord (n. 122); injunction at observance of the Supper to repentance (n. 114, 258[5]); treatment of in Roman Catholicism (n. 257[6]).


Swedenborg. On his being chosen as revelator (n. 264); the Lord appeared to him in the sun in which He is (n. 135); his enlightenment (n. 135); his other-world experience, duration (n. 27, 50[3, 4], 135, 324[4]); scope (n. 299e, 50[3, 4], 324[4]); inquiring in other world (n. 265[2-4]); learning (n. 4[4, 5], 19[2], 34[3], 36, 39, 79[3], 93, 96[6], 99, 158, 185, 187[2], 189[2], 215[9], 223, 250[4], 274 at 6, 288, 289[1, 2], 294[3], 298[2], 305, 309, 310[4], 312[3, 4], 324[4], 326); recitals of these experiences introduced by such words as “I have been granted to know,” “I have seen proved,” etc.); learning to the contrary of his own ideas (n. 279[2], 290).


Teaching. See Leading.


Temporal, the. Passing goals and needs (n. 215, 220[5]); left on death, and spiritual and eternal entered on (n. 220[4]); temporal and eternal united by the Lord (n. 218); see Distinction and Wealth, and Providence.


Temptation. Combat against one’s evils and falsities (n. 25); states wrongly regarded as temptation (n. 141); at stake in genuine temptations (n. 25, 141); how temptations arise (n. 19, 145[2]); and see Combat.


Think and Will. Thinking and willing from one’s own being is the divine itself, to think and will from god the truly human (n. 293); thinking and willing spiritual, speaking and doing natural (n. 71); whatever is thought from the will is appropriated (n. 227); all one thinks and wills inflows from the Lord (n. 292, the Lord, however, not cause of man’s thinking evil and falsity (n. 292, 294[5]); thinking and willing cannot fail in anyone, why (n. 294[6]); the Lord causes a man to think and will in accordance with that man’s nature (n. 294[6]. See Affection and Thought); Will and Understanding.


Time. Affected by mood, as distance is (n. 49). See Space and Time.


Tongue. Character of language in the spiritual world (n. 230); speech of spirits with a man in latter’s native tongue (n. 135); the tongue as a means of tasting, see sensation.


Torment. Of the evil if approach heaven (n. 338[6], 324[7]); enjoyment of infernal love becomes joyless hereafter, meant by torment in hell (n. 83[3]).


Tree. Correspondence between man’s life and a tree’s growth (n. 332[3]); comparison of his life of affection and thought with a tree, its branches and fruit (n. 107); man’s life remains hereafter what it has become, as a tree lies where it has fallen (n. 277b); tree of life and tree of knowledge, meaning each (n. 241[3], 313[2]); branch engrafted in man’s life from the tree of life (n. 296[2], 332[4].


Trinity. In God who is one in person and essence, the Lord (n. 123[2], 262, 263. See God.


Truth. Meaning, all that embraces wisdom (n. 11); how turned into falsity (n. 288); truths revealed on last judgment for grasp of Word’s spiritual meaning (n. 264); truth inseparable from good (n. 10. See Good and Truth.


Ultimates. The Latin word is rendered “lasts,” where contrast or connection is with firsts); “outmosts,” where that is with inmosts); “lowest,” where association is with highest, e.g., lowest heaven or lowest sense of Word); “outmosts” in constitution of the human being); “last” as in last judgment or in “the Lord, the first and the last.” The English cognate does not convey these meanings.


Understanding. See Will and Understanding.


Union. Concepts of union or conjunction: reciprocal union of the Lord and man (n. 32); of Lord with man, spirit, angel (n. 53[2]); of the Lord to the temporal by means of what is eternal (n. 220[4], to uses 220[6]); of the Lord with heaven and the church, called a marriage (n. 8, 9, 21); inseparableness of charity and faith (n. 82, good and truth 10-13, affection and thought 28[4]); union of good and truth in a person object of providence (n. 9, 16); a marriage of good and truth throughout the Word (n. 21); in universe (n. 9); unition of all the affections of the love of good by the Lord into the form of heaven (n. 62, 63); the oneness of the divine being, in person and essence (n. 262).


Universal. In every form universal and particular act as one (n. 180[4]); universal exists from singulars or leasts (n. 201[2, 3] as general does from particulars or details 201[2], 180[4], 4[3]); Divine universal by being in least things (n. 294[6]); the two universals of the spiritual life (n. 326[9], 328[9]), and see Church and Religion.


Universe. Created by God from Himself and not from nothing (n. 46[3]); not for own sake, for the sake of those with whom He would be in heaven (n. 27[2]); created from divine love by divine wisdom (n. 3); see creation.


Use. Broad definition of uses (n. 220[11]); goods of charity are uses (n. 220[5]); use a good with its character from truth (n. 11[3]); uses of things in world mount to man and on to God 3[3]); Lord’s kingdom one of uses (n. 26, 250[3]); divine provision that there shall be no being or thing not performing a use (n. 26); Lord unites Himself to what is natural and temporal by means of uses (n. 220[4, 6]); leads man to look on eminence and opulence for sake of uses (n. 183[4]); doing uses means doing goods, serving others (n. 215[11]); motives in doing uses (n. 215[11-13]); the impious can perform uses and not only the good, and with more zeal (n. 250[3]).


Variations of State. The forms of the mind experience them (n. 195[3], 279, 319).


Variety. Is infinite and eternal (n. 56[2], 57); has no end, in human life, in affections, in heaven’s life, hell’s life (n. 190[3]); can exist only in what is constant, fixed, and certain (n. 190); examples of the constant (n. 190[2]).


Vastation. Generally obsolete now as synonym for devastation. (n. 328[7]).


Veil. Interiors of mind closed by the sensuous, a veil interposed, and thought going on only below the veil (n. 310); no veil with those not in prudence of their own who think interiorly (n. 311[2]).


Visionary and Fanatical Spirits. Calling themselves the Holy Spirit (n. 134[4]); divine constraint on them (n. 134[4]).


Visions. Two kinds, divine and diabolic (n. 134); how those of each kind are effected (n. 134); divine such as the prophets of the Old Testament had, who were then in the spirit (n. 134); so of the visions in the other world of Ezekiel, Zechariah, Daniel, and also of John in Revelation (n. 134[1-3]); such visions do not occur now (n. 134[4], the reason 134[4], end was predicted in Daniel 134[4]); diabolic visions, which have occurred sometimes, rendered unlikely (n. 134[4]); there are also phantasmal visions, which, however, are merely illusions of an estranged mind (n. 134[4]); being coercive, visions are not reforming (n. 129[3]); those recorded in Word can be (n. 134[4]).


War. Diametrically opposed to charity (n. 251); why permitted (n. 251[1-3]); wars are spiritual states breaking out (n. 251[3, 4]); bounds to greater and lesser wars (n. 251[4]); spiritual man acknowledges that providence governs wars (n. 251[5]); natural man’s gesture to providence in war (n. 251[5]); fortune and providence in war 251[6]); victories on side of prudence, not of justice thought an argument against providence (n. 252); no difference whether commander upright or not (n. 252[2]); angels defend and protect, spirits of hell aggressive (n. 252[2]); allowable to defend one’s country (n. 252[2]); hostilities without cause not licit, seeking glory as cause diabolic (n. 252[2]).


Way. Life’s love determined by one’s way of life (n. 105); walking in the way by knowledge of it (n. 60, knowledge of the way from walking in it 60); on death everyone goes the way of his love, if he is in a good love to heaven, in an evil one to hell (n. 319[4]); ways in spiritual world leading to a society in heaven, a society in hell (n. 60); each sees only the way of his love (n. 60, pursues it instinctively 319[4]); Lord enters man by an internal way, defined (n. 131); cf. His leading and teaching, and see Enlightenment also.


Wealth. See Distinction and Wealth.


Wife. Heaven and the church called wife of the Lord, Scripture usage (n. 8).


Will and Understanding. Constitute man (n. 103); faculty of liberty underlies the will, the faculty of rationality the understanding (n. 96[2], 285); else there would be neither will and understanding, nor humanness (n. 96[2]); are consorts 96[3]); will impotent apart from understanding (n. 3); real only along with the understanding (n. 11[2]); internal of will unites with internal of understanding (n. 136[8]); how the two take form (n. 136[7]); will’s love led, life’s understanding taught (n. 156); how an angel views will and understanding (n. 293).


Will. An internal and an external will (n. 111[2]); action can be from one or the other (n. 89); will and deed (n. 3[2]); will and love (n. 96[3]); as between will and understanding, will takes the initiative (n. 80, 136[8], 209); inspires its desires in the understanding and does away with others (n. 209); influx of Lord’s will into man’s (n. 96[5], empowering it 329); contrary course of Lord’s and of man’s will (n. 219[4]); evil will permitted expression (n. 281[2]); the will needs to be healed (n. 282); how done (n. 283, 284).


Understanding. An internal and an external (n. 111); is internal sight (n. 166); difference between sight and grasp by reason (n. 150[2]); understanding could be healed by various means, but would not suffice (n. 282); why ever separate from the will, to see latter’s character (n. 278, cf. 233, 318). See Think and Will.


Wisdom. See Love and Wisdom.


Wonders of Spiritual World. Among them: heaven can be opened to spirits and yet rejected (n. 209); evil ascribing power to themselves, the good thinking they have no power, it is the Almighty’s (n. 19[2]); the expressiveness of the language (n. 230); touching Word to face lights up the face (n. 256[4].


Word, the. The Lord the Word, why (n. 172[2, 3]); the Word gives communication with heaven and therefore with the Lord (n. 172[2]); doctrine of the church to be drawn from the sense of the letter of the Word (n. 256[3]); the whole Word a doctrine of life (n. 330[7]); light goes out from Word to those who do not have the Word (n. 256[2]); taught from Word one is taught by the Lord (n. 172[5]); interiors of Word implanted during life consciously entered on hereafter (n. 172[5]); Roman Catholics and the Word, some Protestants and the Word (n. 330[7]); why not known before that the Word has a spiritual meaning (n. 264[1-3, 6]); once known (n. 264[6]).


World. Interrelation spiritual and natural worlds (n. 251[4]).


World of Spirits. Intermediate between heaven and hell (n. 307[3]); one first enters the other world in the world of spirits (n. 307[3]); is in the external of his life at first, but this is put off there and one is led to his place in heaven or hell (n. 307[3]).


Worship. Worshipers of self and the world (n. 154[2], of the Lord 154[2]); worshiper of self and nature confirms himself against providence (n. 249, his arguments 249-252); beginning of sacrificial worship (n. 328[2]); manner of worship before the Lord’s coming (n. 255[2]); enforced worship (n. 137); harmful, why (n. 136[4]); not forced (n. 137, has something internal in it 136[4]); internal may be forced by fear or compelled by love (n. 136[9]).


Yoke. On deeming oneself not under the yoke of the law (n. 42, 101).


Zeal. Seeming zeal for the salvation of souls (n. 139[8]); early Christian zeal (n. 257[3]).






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